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Macro Economis - - Essay Example

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Macroeconomics Introduction This present paper is an essay that largely focuses on macroeconomics and it covers five critical areas pertaining to this subject. The areas covered by the essay include the definition of the term macroeconomics, secondly, the objectives of macroeconomics, and thirdly, the essay will explain why macroeconomic objectives are significant in the United Kingdom…
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Download file to see previous pages Macroeconomics As noted above, this present paper is based on the concept of macroeconomics, which has been described by Bauman and Klein (2011) as the branch of economics that majorly deals with the wider perspective of the national economy rather than a single segment of the economy. With reference to the writings by Mankiw (2011, p23) macro-economic is stated as “a branch of economics that focus on the trends and movements in the entire economy,” and some of these movements and trends concern employment, inflation, price levels, rate of growth, national income, and gross domestic product of a particular country, or region/ economic block. In comparison to the other branch of economics, Chung et al. (2007) stated that microeconomics mainly focus on smaller aspects of the economy such as the behaviour of consumers and business organisations, and how this affects quantities and prices within a particular market. According to Buiter (2010), even thou the field of macroeconomics is broad, it largely focuses on two critical areas of studies, which include the study on the causes and repercussions of short-run business cycles on the national income and the study on determinants of long-run economic growth. Dale et al. (2010) stated that usually the central government as well as the large corporations, utilise macroeconomic forecasts and models primarily to develop and evaluate economic policies and business strategies. Macroeconomic objectives In the previous sub-section, it was stated that macroeconomics is simply a branch of economics that focuses on the wider aspect of the economy; however, Keynes (2011) further added that macroeconomics also concerns itself with the conscious and deliberate management of economic variables within an economy in order to attain certain objectives. It is of essence to note that macroeconomics relies on three critical policies to attain its objectives, and these policies include the monetary policies, fiscal policies and supply-side policies. Monetary policies are defined by Krugman and Wells (2009), as measures that are adopted by the central government through the central bank in order to increase or decrease the supply of money in circulation while fiscal policies are the policies of the central government, which focus on the country’s budget and especially issues pertaining to borrowing and taxation. As for supply-side policies, they are mainly devised to ensure that the market works efficiently. According to the writings by Bauman and Klein (2011), they wrote that the top objectives of macroeconomics include price stability, exchange stability, full employment, growth of the economy, and the balance of payment equilibrium. a) Price stability According to Buiter (2010), the maintenance of price stability is crucial to the national economy because higher price levels contribute to various problems pertaining to consumption, distribution, exchange, and production. For example, inflation distorts economic calculations as well as expectations and it generates varying problems in different sections of the economy. Moreover, Buiter (2010) stated that during inflation creditors lose while debtors gain. Furthermore, inflation strains the relationship between capital and labour, and the distribution of national income becomes ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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