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Fiscal Policy - Essay Example

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Name of student: Topic: Lecturer: Date of Presentation: Introduction The government uses various policies to ensure the economy is running properly. The Keynesian economists advocate the use of fiscal policy to ensure the economy achieves desired output and employment…
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Download file to see previous pages However, fiscal policy is more effective in the short-run as in the long-run there is stabilizing economic forces that ensure the output moves back to its potential (Taylor, 2009). The fiscal policy involves increasing government spending or reducing taxes to stimulate aggregate demand or vice versa to reduce demand. Some countries focus on the supply-side of the economy to ensure a more permanent change. The paper will discuss the effects of fiscal policy on the economy. Taxation Expansionary fiscal policy involves cutting taxes and increasing government spending. Taxation is a source of revenue for the government to fund expenditure. If it decides to cut taxes, then it runs a budget deficit. A reduction in income tax leaves individuals with more disposable income to spend on consumption thus raising aggregate demand. As demand increases, the producers are forced to produce more and employ more factors of production. This leads to more output and employment and increased economic activity (Sexton, 2008). However, income tax can only be adjusted annually on the budget hence it is difficult to apply this policy. It also depends on whether the households use extra income for consumption and not saving since savings is a withdrawal from the circular flow of income. The government can also increase transfers such as unemployment insurance, and in turn disposable income leading to more consumption (Riley, 2006). Lower taxes and increased transfers act as an incentive for workers to add more hours and increase productivity hence increased output and employment. Increasing taxes acts as a disincentive to work. If workers get less income by the end of the day compared to what they were getting, they would be dissatisfied and would not be willing to work extra hours. However, some would put more hours to cover the lost income but would lose their productivity due to low morale. There would also be low labour supply as not many individuals would be willing to work leading to low output in the economy (Taylor, 2009). Indirect taxes can also be used to discourage consumption especially of demerit goods. A government can impose duty on alcohol and cigarettes leading to lower demand for the items hence low output and employment. Tax incentives such as Subsidies to producers on the other hand lead to decline in cost of production hence reduced prices and consequently increased demand. Increased demand leads to production of more output hence increased economic activity (Creel & Sawyer, 2009). A decline in corporation tax attracts domestic and foreign investors’ hence increased fixed capital spending on technology, labour skills, infrastructure (Mankiw, 2008). Tax allowance on research and development encourages innovation and more business start-up thus increased employment and consequently increased aggregate demand. Government Spending Fiscal policy entails increasing government spending but a contractionary fiscal policy involves reducing government spending to curb excess demand. A government spends on infrastructure, and provision of essential services such as education and health. This adds directly to the aggregate demand of the economy hence stimulating economic activity. The government can finance its spending by borrowing from abroad or domestic market as raising taxes can lead to further weakening of the economy due to reduced demand. Improved infrastructure leads to more investments due to opening up of new markets and entry ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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