The study is based on Seychelles, in the African continent. The major aims of the study are to establish whether performance-based budgeting promotes operational efficiencies and quality outcomes as well as whether Seychelles is a fertile ground for introduction of performance-based budgeting…
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National budgeting is a detailed and conscious process of matching expenditure and revenue items to achieve specific outputs or outcomes. The major elements of a budget are revenues and expenditures. Therefore, budgeting is fund allocation tool that may be abused or used correctly. When used correctly, a budget helps government deliver efficient and effective services to its citizens and non-citizens alike. Line item budgeting, zero-based budgeting and performance-based budgeting are among different ways of making a national budget. Line and zero-based budgets are traditionally incremental and have been used by many countries for many years. Performance based budgeting is fashionable in the current times because it is outcome oriented and is more likely to responds to needs of the people as compared to other budgetary approaches. In theory, the approach is able to give value for every unit of money spent and is seen as a better approach of allocating funds to various state and government agencies.
Performance based budgeting dates back to 1950’s. However, most governments and states began introducing them into their departments in early 1990’s and some other states are yet to introduce them. It is evident that introduction and implementation of PBB does not only have specific triggers, but it also demands fertile ground for its undertaking. The major triggers of PBB include financial crisis, change in political systems as well as increasing budget deficits. In addition, adequate infrastructure and enhancing reforms must be put in place to allow for its implementation. The study is based on Seychelles, in the African continent. The major aims of the study are to establish whether performance-based budgeting promotes operational efficiencies and quality outcomes as well as whether Seychelles is a fertile ground for introduction of performance-based budgeting. The study is descriptive in nature and would be based on case studies. Data would be collected partly from legit documentations and partly from observations. The study is expected to take a total of about four months, following proposal’s approval. Contents Abstract 2 Contents 4 List of Abbreviations 6 1.0 Introduction 7 1.1 Budgets 9 1.2Seychelles’ Background Information 9 1.3 Rationale of the Study 11 1.4 Aims of the Study 12 1.5 Research Questions 12 2.1 Theoretical Framework 13 2.2 Performance Based Budgeting 13 2.2.1Features of Performance Based Budgeting 14 2.2.2 Performance-Based Budgeting triggers 17 2.2.3 Preconditions for Performance-Based Budgeting 17 2.3 Empirical data: Countries that implemented Performance-Based Budgeting 20 2.3.1 Korea 20 2.3.2 Florida 22 2.3.3 Seychelles 23 2.4 Lessons Learned 24 3.0 Study Methodology 26 3.1 Study Design 26 3.2 Type of Data 26 3.3Data Collection Method 27 3.4 Ethical Consideration 27 3.5Analyzing the Qualitative Data 28 References 29 List of Abbreviations AASHTO -American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials BB -British Broadcasting Corporation CIA - Central Intelligence Agency CS -Cambridge Systematics, DGAACS -Department of General Assembly Affairs and Conference Services FHA -Federal Highway Administration GDP - Gross Domestic Product GOS -Government of Seychelles IMF -International Monetary Fund MBO - management by objectives MEFP -Introduction of Memorandum of Economic and financial Programme NCHRP -National Cooperative Highway Research Program, NRC -National Research Council OECD –Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OPPAGA -Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability PEFA -Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Assessment PPBS -planning programming- budgeting system SNP -Seychelles National Party SPPF -Seychelles People’s progressive Front TRB -Transportation Research Board, 1.0 Introduction Introduction of performance-based budgeting system (PBB) in any given country is based on country’
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The current study deals with an understanding of the capability of a performance appraisal system in influencing the employee performance within an organization. The focus of the study has been to understand whether there is a need to incorporate alternative measures within organizations to effectively influence organizational employees.
oup in relation to Africa, Middle East and Europe 3 Figure 1.2: Map of Seychelles 4 Figure 1.4.1: Profits, Liquidity and Capital Adequacy of Banks in Seychelles vis-a-vis Other Economies 21 List of Tables Table 1.5.1: A Full List of Stakeholders for the Research 24 Acknowledgements Declaration of Originality DOCTORAL DISSERTATION SUBMISSION FORM Student’s family name: First names: Student ID No: Course: Supervisor: Dissertation Title: Exploring the Opportunities and Challenges of Developing Islamic Financial Services in Seychelles Declaration I certify that this dissertation is my own work.
Part 1 – Project objectives and overall research approach 3
1.1 Reasons for Topic Area and Choosing Particular Organization 4
1.2 Project Objectives and Research Questions 5
1.3 Overall Research Approach 5
Table of Contents
Part 1 – Project objectives and overall research approach 3
Literature Review Organizational Learning Types of Organizational Learning Stages of Organizational Learning Facilitators of Organizational Learning Factors Inhibiting Organizational Learning The Community College Setting 4. Methodology Qualitative Research Theoretical Perspective Research Design Population and Setting Participants Access and Entry Data Collection Data Analysis 5.
Although there is an obvious shift from the use of zero-based budgeting to activity-based budgeting throughout the local businesses in the United Kingdom, zero-based budgeting method is still considered as one of the best budgeting tools in budgeting. Although the use of zero-based budgeting can be very costly and time-consuming, the primary benefit derived from the use of zero-based budgeting is that the use of this method can provide the organisational leaders with a systematic method of evaluating the non-production activities of an organisation.
Saudi Arabia has demonstrated rapid demographic changes which accounts as its main determinant of political and economic stability. In particular, it is the ability of a nation to develop its human resources that determines the success of its organizations in the long run
However, the government spending in this country is in the lead of the small nations with a debt to Gross Domestic Product standing at 160 per cent. This is extremely high since the government heavily relies on external funding from other nations. The government spending in Seychelles is at 19.4 of the GDP in the public sector for the sole purpose of producing public goods compared to only 15.7 of GDP in producing public goods for a large nation.
The Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal.
A human holds a nature- a tendency to judge people by any means and at any level of life situation. In organizations people judge people, and this is the basic human tendency they exercise at the work place. To avoid this instinctive, natural and informal judgment of people at the workplace, organizations bring performance appraisal systems, which are formal systems of judging people.
Students develop intellectually when they take the mathematics problems and apply their own knowledge when solving it. The project method promotes dialogue between students because they discuss and share knowledge in Mathematics when working on the project.
It has also served to enhance the ability of almost anyone, musically talented and not, to record and market songs.There are certainly numerous critics and opposing viewpoints to John Phillip Sousa’s arguments, but much of the debate does arise from the reality that scope of the music industry, and the profession thereof.
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