The prolonged eighteenth century comprises of the period between 1688 and 1832, commencing with the magnificent uprising when James II was superseded by William II. The period ended with the Reform Act of 1832…
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The eighteenth century literature may be complicated to comprehend. The subject matter seems isolated and the approach of writing is very different from todays’ authors. For the first segment of the eighteenth century, the writers supposed that they should impersonate the natural world. However, from the mid century onwards they paid an increasing attention to imagination (Day & Keegan, 2009, pp.1-5). Literature communicates the thoughts and passions of authors which have a significant influence on the lives of people. (Stephen, 1994, p.1) In the eighteenth century literature, interest was mainly focused on the practical form of life either of culture as a whole or of one’s own community group or set. The majority of authors belonged by origin or society to the upper societal division and inclined to overstress its false customs, often looking with disdain on the other classes (Braudel, 1992, p.184). To them, the conservative good breeding, well conduct, pleasures, and the principles were the only ingredient of life a lot worth appraisal. The effort of the moralists carried over with remarkable sincerity into the literature. It was long-established to apply ethical values to the presentation of a human personality but it was an innovative thing to give too much of consideration to the identification and defining the superior as in fact found in a character and in humanity. This attention was now shared as never earlier by the qualified philosophers and the admired writers (Sanyal, 2006, pp.2-17). Several literature included writings on pirates, princes and prostitutes, who are in general considered as outsiders to a society. The study reveals the insights of the authors’ perceptions on the outsiders of the society, represented by the pirates, prices, or the prostitutes, in their views in the eighteenth century literature. Eighteenth Century Authors’ Perception on “The Outsiders” With the help of famous stories written during the eighteenth century, the perceptions of authors regarding the outsiders meaning the pirates, princes, and prostitutes, can be reflected. Through the stories it can be understood as to how these people used to be treated or accepted in the society. Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) was a businessman, correspondent, and an inexhaustible author. Many of Defoe's works are loaded with quirk of fate. Defoe’s story Roxana or The Fortunate Mistress is a classic writing that was published in 1724. It is believed to be a life story of Madamoselle Beleau, the beautiful daughter of French Protestant refugees. She was brought up in England and wedded to a worthless son of an English brewer. The story deals with how she suffers after her marriage and even more after the death of her husband. Another famous autobiography was written by Olaudah Equiano, or, Gustavus Vassa, the African who was born in Nigeria. He was “kidnapped and sold” into captivity in his early days and taken as a slave to a different world. Through a book called The Interesting Narrative of the life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, he described how he in due course earned the value of his own liberty by careful “trading and saving”. The book had been a best seller and also furthered an anti-slavery cause (Carey, n.d.). John Gay (1685-1732) was another famous personality known particularly for his writing, The Beggar’s Opera. In the story the recipient of stolen merchandise, Peachum, has a beneficial dealing with Macheath. However, Polly who is the daughter of Peachum falls in love with the offender. Peachum reports against Macheath, who is captive in Newgate, in order to save the prize and to get relief of his son-in-law. The daughter of the warden also falls for him and he takes this chance to flee (Liukkonen & Pesonen, 2008). Through the
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The writings of British literary figures Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift are an answer to the times that these two men lived. The corruption in the government, the folly of the nobles and the lack of practicality of science and religion have all encouraged these two men not only to expose these things but also to teach their readers about what is good and what is not good during these times.
69). Ultimately what the penal laws in the 1800's provoked from the Irish Catholics were retribution and revenge for the severity of life that they had been left to deal with.
The Irish Catholics began evading the penal laws which led to forms of guerrilla warfare from a society that only wanted what was rightfully theirs.
The city emerged as the theater for a series of major battles known as the New York Campaign during the American Revolutionary War. New York City was the capital of the United States until 1790.In the early 1800s, New York City was thriving due to economic power; the state soon acquired the nickname, "The Empire State."
The author of the essay presents John Gay as one of the influential poets and playwrights of early eighteenth century, whose work reflects the social and political state of affairs prevailing in the England of his time. It is underlined that Gay has boldly highlighted such traits of his time disclosure of which was considered to be taboo in past.
The researcher also analyzes Voltaire’s Candide, where the main female characters are prostitutes, women that marry for money, disease-spreaders, and most importantly victims as example on the subject of women, who are strangely represented in the novel and their role, that was established by society.
The author of the text touches upon the topic of conspiracy in New York in the 18th century. For example, in 1741, Daniel Horsmanden, the city’s recorder was one of the three presiding judges to the infamous New York conspiracy trials. This was after a series of fires took place taking down several buildings in the city and it was generally taken that it was the work of slaves.
Vampirism in 17th and 18th Century in French Literature
The concept of vampirism has become extremely synonymous with the people as it continues to infuse the popular culture. Folkloric and mythological records described vampiric entities as bestial creatures, whose subsistence largely depended upon sucking the life force (blood) out of living beings.
The sources of the forms of violence are discussed, along with the effects of violence and the remedies for violence. Finally, the essay discusses the relationship between violence and writing.
he put pressure of otherwise good sailors and captains in order to deliver their merchandise.1 Some sailors and captains transport huge numbers of seafarers who sometimes end up in the snares of pirates. Although the tough conditions of operating in the sea contribute to piracy,
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