Literature review - Dissertation Example

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Literature Review Origin of Youth Gangs Youth involvement in gang activities has become an issue of concern in most societies (Howell 2007), and this concern has led into many scholars and researchers to study the reasons as the why there are increasing incidents regarding youth involvement in Gang activities…
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Download file to see previous pages Youth gangs is not a new phenomenon in the society as it dates back in 17th century where they were characterized with wearing of distinct colors for their identification and arose mainly from social and economic vacuum in their neighborhoods and their contemporary societies (Wiener 2005). The distinguished emerging larger gangs do have a powerful and resourceful organization, access to powerful and dangerous weapons, and resourceful media which they use to recruit young children into these gangs (Jankowski 2003). Based on this, it can be argued that youth gangs are considered a threat to the peaceful coexistence in the society at large. The origin of youth gangs is greatly attributed to the economically and socially disadvantaged background (Howell 2005). These youth gangs in most societies and neighborhoods are perceived by its members to fill several needs that range from psychological and physical needs to economic and social needs (Howell 2005). Based on these researches, it is notable that these underlying needs are associated with the failure of the family to fill the arising gaps from this. Gangs notable intents is focused on provision of friendship, sense of identity, searching for wealth and finally for the purpose of security (Hastings, Dunbar, & Bania 2011). Nature and organization of youth gangs Youth join gangs mainly due to increasing trusting relationship within the gang family (Brantingham 2006). This is attributed to negligence as well as incompetence on the parents, clergy and teachers in performing their traditional roles of counseling and guiding the youth in the society. In the examination of youth gangs in general, it is notable that gang members have developed trusting solid relationships with their mentors who is considered the gang leader (Brantingham 2006). This relationship of the mentor and the mentee comes along with patience and the willingness and commitment of the mentor in pursuing of a strong relationship (Campbell 2011). It can be argued that the concept of being real comes in place which is a key attribute of any youth gang leader (Wanberg 2004). This involves the gang leader relating genuine concerns on behalf of the gang members. Therefore the mentor needs not to condemn the mentee for their actions or their immorality but the real attribute ensures that the gang leader listens, understands and help the group members (Campbell 2011). In regard to communication approach, the youth gang leader ensures that it is effective and this can be perceived that this consolidates the youth gang productive relationship and trust (Wanberg 2004). Based on this study, it can be ascribed that it is effective youth gangs have intensive and extensive knowledge and understanding in regard to the gang social norms and rules (Campbell 2011). Categories of Youth Gangs There are three main categories of youth gangs. The first category of youth gangs are corporate gangs in which its main focus is making money and thus considered profit making (Sanchez-Jankowski 2003). These categories are considered to be organized attributed by its clearly defined division of labor, high level of gang coordination and a well-entrenched hierarchy. This gang leadership structure has limited its exposure to the criminal and law enforcers thus members of the gang tend not to easily quit the gang (Sanchez-Jankowski 2003). Based on this study, it is evident that this kind of the gang is highly mobile and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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