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Juvenile Justice - Coursework Example

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JUVENILE JUSTICE 1. Goals and Reform Efforts of The Child Savers The movement to save children was started in the United States for the period of the 19th century, and had a substantial force of the evolution of the juvenile justice system. A group known as the Child-savers emphasized the importance of restitution and the prevention of child abuse through its early identification and they intervened though the means of providing education and training…
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Download file to see previous pages The biggest achievement of the Child-savers was the establishment of the first ever juvenile court in Chicago in 1899. This court was created on the grounds that juveniles neither were neither ready to account for their actions nor were they completely developed. They could however be rehabilitated more easily. 2. Operation Of The Early Juvenile Courts The primary juvenile courts were designed in the United States in 1910 and they were functional in 32 states. By 1925, only 2 states did not have juvenile courts. Instead of meting out punishments to delinquent youngsters, these juvenile courts endeavored to reform them, in order that they transform into responsible, productive citizens. The laws governing the juvenile courts clearly stated that their objective was to help children in trouble. This resulted to rather significant differences between the juvenile and criminal justice systems. Over the path of the subsequent 50 years, most of the juvenile courts held jurisdiction over practically all youngsters who were embroiled in the violations of criminal laws. It was only if a juvenile court withdrew or withheld its jurisdiction, were the young offenders transferred to criminal courts and tried as adults. The decision to transfer these children to criminal courts was based on individual case by case bases, and the best concern of the children was taken into account. The focus always remained on rehabilitation rather than punishment. 3. Supreme Court decision of Kent v. United States Kent v US 1966 is a well-known court case concerning juveniles and their rights. Petitioner was detained at the age of 16 in association with charges of housebreaking, theft and rape. As a juvenile, he was accused to the limited authority of the District of Columbia Juvenile Court except that court, after "complete investigation," ought to waive jurisdiction over him and forward him for assessment to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Requester’s advocate filed a movement in the Juvenile Court for a trial on the question of waiver, and for right of entry to the Juvenile Court's Social Service file which had been building up on requester through his try-out for a preceding offense. The decision and conclusion of the case incorporated the facts which are: there must at all times be a trial in the issue of waiver of jurisdiction; secondly there must always be support of counsel in a trial of waiver of jurisdiction and third the plaintiff's counsel must have right to view to all social records. If the adjudicator determines that a waiver of transfer is the precise answer there must be a declaration of facts based on a complete inquiry, counting a statement of the judge's grounds for the waiver. A waiver of jurisdiction is mainly the verdict to authorize a juvenile to be tried as an adult in criminal court. 4. Supreme Court decision of In Re Gault In re Gault, 387 U.S. 1 (1967), was a milestone U.S. Supreme Court verdict that held that juveniles charged of crimes in a criminal behavior happening must be afforded many of the equal due process rights as adults, such as the right to opportune notification of the charges, the right to deal with witnesses, the right adjacent to self-incrimination, and the right to advise. The U.S. Supreme Cou ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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