Nobody downloaded yet

Juvenile Offenders and Re-offending Rates - Literature review Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Juvenile Offenders and Re – offending Rates: the Case of Non – custodial Sentences in the UK Name Institution name Different cultures have different ways of dealing with juvenile offenders.1 Crime in most countries is seen as misbehaviour that needs to be punished.2 Some prefer incarceration as a way of deterrence and incapacitation, and others more rehabilitative activities in order to reduce re – offending rates…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.5% of users find it useful
Juvenile Offenders and Re-offending Rates
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Juvenile Offenders and Re-offending Rates"

Download file to see previous pages There have been global trends in treatment of juvenile offenders. Until the 1970’s, juvenile offenders were punished for their crimes, but it was recognized that their age was to be considered. The 1980’s then witnessed a rise in punishment approach to juvenile offenders.4 Since 2000, risk factors have been used to determine which communities have a higher probability of producing juvenile offenders.5 These communities are then encouraged through central policymaking to eliminate these factors.6 However, recent approach implies elimination of crime rates and strict punishment of the committed crimes.7 It does not apply rehabilitation or concern with re – offending rates. Such system, inspired by the American system of policing, punishing and shaming juvenile offenders has been applied in the UK ever since the 1990’s.8 Globalization has been blamed for such a development. According to the critics, globalization has promoted neo – liberalism and individual responsibility, which results in blaming the juvenile offender.9 As a result, juvenile incarceration rates are high in the UK relative to other countries. ...
Scotland in Europe.12 One reason is lower age of criminal responsibility, which leads to more juveniles being prosecuted and awarded custodial sentence.13 There is a disconnection between the central government and local agents. In the UK, non – custodial sentence is preferred and promoted by the policymakers.14 Social Enquiry Reports (SER), which are written by social workers and stand at disposal to judges and sheriffs, promote the prescribed policy. However, the judges mostly misinterpret the recommendations, or decide to disregard them.15 The government on one hand aims to punish the crimes, but on the other hand prevent them. As a result, such action might also be misinterpreted by some judges. Local communities also affect the implementation of central government’s decisions. In South – West of the UK, one in ten sentences is custodial sentence, whereas in West Midlands one in five community sentences are custodial sentences.16 Such an approach by judges and communities changes the impact of governmental policies and decisions.17 As a result, England and Wales experienced decreasing rates of juvenile re – offending, even though these decreases are slight. According to the Ministry of Justice report from 2010, Between April 2009 and March 2010, there were approximately 110,000 juvenile offenders. 18 Less than 38,000 of them were re – offenders. Thus, the re – offending rate was 33.3 per cent, and the average number of re – offences for these individuals was 2.79. 19 There was a 0.4 percentage point decrease in re – offending rate of juveniles since 2000, though risk assessment of the juvenile offenders indicates high probability of re – offending.20 In Australia, a mild system, re – offending rates are visibly lower for non – custodial ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Juvenile Offenders and Re-offending Rates Literature review”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Juvenile Offenders and Re-Offending Rates Literature Review)
“Juvenile Offenders and Re-Offending Rates Literature Review”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Juvenile Offenders and Re-offending Rates

Juvenile Offenders Term Paper

...?Running Head: Juvenile Offenders Juvenile Offenders [Institute’s TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 3 Introduction4 Statement of Problem 4 Discussion 4 Conclusion 9 References 11 Juvenile Offenders Abstract This paper revolves around the statement that “Juvenile offenders who commit murder under the age of 18 should not be legally executed.” There are various reasons for supporting this stance. First, juvenile offenders who are less than the ages of 18 are not mature enough to understand the full weight of their decisions. Second, they also fail to communicate well...
8 Pages(2000 words)Term Paper

Juvenile re-entry programs

...? Juvenile Re-Entry Programs Juvenile Re-Entry Programs Definition and of the Problem Newell and Salazar (2010) conducted a study that focused on the effectiveness of re-entry of juveniles who were previously incarcerated into society. Their report to the Second District of Los Angeles (LA) County in December 2010 indentified explicitly that there was eminent problems with regard to effectively addressing the needs of newly probated juveniles as they are reintegrated into the communities they previously belonged. Further, the issue likewise expounded on the need to “achieve rehabilitation after incarceration” (Newell &...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Incarceration Rates in Juvenile Offenders

...Incarceration Rates in Juvenile Offenders Introduction Criminal punishment penalties are imposed by the judiciary on people who violate the criminal law. Criminal law prevents the reinforcement of behavior which is considered detrimental to the society. These violators can be subjected to a variety of punishments ranging from imposition of fines to the confinement of the individual to a jail (known as incarceration). When the violator is under the age of 18, in that case he/she is known as juvenile delinquent. The most potent instrument to crime amongst the youth is the use of drugs. Juveniles may perform criminal acts out of desperation to support their...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Characteristics of Juvenile offenders

...people can be identified by their various characteristics some of which are obvious while others are not. The major causes of the ever rising cases of juvenile offenders are their ever increasing habits of being rebellious, mass media and the high rates of divorce. Characteristics of juvenile offenders Characteristics at an individual level Juvenile offenders tend to exhibit antisocial behavior which is coupled with alienation. This is where the juvenile engages in behaviors that are not in line with social morals as well as standards. Most of these behaviors lead to bleach of peace in the family of the...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper


...God: One and the Same Introduction More often than not, in this Christian-founded nation, when people think or speak of God their mind automaticallyswitches to the concepts of God that have been presented by the Christian or Catholic churches: this invisible, omnipresent being who answers prayers, touches hearts, and instills His fear into those that follow and oppose Him. However, if one were to travel to other countries, to different parts of the United States, or even to their next door neighbor’s house, they may find that a contrasting image of God exists there (Fisher & Smart, 1998). Although God is considered to be a part of just the Christian-based religions, there are many people that would be shocked to find that even... One and the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Facilities for Juvenile Offenders

...Facilities for Juvenile Offenders Facilities for Juvenile Offenders This paper will describe three short-term confinement facilities that house juvenile offenders. They are the Rappahannock Juvenile Center, the Lancaster Youth Service Center and the New Beginnings Youth Development Center. The Rappahannock Juvenile Center The Rappahannock Juvenile Center opened in Virginia in the year 1972. Initially, it had a capacity to accommodate only 21 beds in a building with of 9, 000 square feet. This led to overcrowding which prompted redesigning. It reopened in Stafford as an improved facility...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Juvenile Offenders

... be supported to avoid further encounters with the justice system. For many youths, the rate of reoffending relates to the nature of punishment they receive. Those who receive tougher or extended penalties are likely to reoffend again. This is because as first time offenders ‘get used’ to the punishment, they no longer become scared. If the defendant is kept on probation until he is 19, it is likely that he will no longer feel the pain of the probation and seriousness of the punishment. The chances that he will reoffend in future only increase. The judge therefore should put this into consideration, and understand that the longer the punishment is given, the less effective it becomes. Finally, allowing juveniles spend more time... on the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Should Juvenile offenders be tried as adults

...Should Juvenile Offenders be tried as adults Introduction Minors (juveniles), who in this case, are individuals that have not yet attained the statutory age sometimes take part in criminal activities, this is often referred to as juvenile delinquency. In many countries, legal systems often provide certain procedures that have to be followed when dealing with these kinds of criminal offenders. According to the justice system of the United States, a person described a juvenile delinquent when he is under 17 years of age and takes part in a criminal activity that would warrant him being charged as an adult. In the recent past, many young...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

The Common Perception of Juvenile Offenders

...The Common Perception of Juvenile Offenders The University of Illinois at Chicago has conducted an experiment that resulted in detection of prejudiced attitude to African American juveniles under the trial. It turned out that male judges acted prosecutive when a defendant was coloured, at the same time – white victim was protected more eagerly than a black one. Thus, a model where a victim was white and a criminal was black turned out to be mostly expected among the judges. The racial discrimination is prohibited by law and needs to be avoided (for example with not mentioning the race of defendants), but biased judgments still remain. The Certain reason for it cannot be distinguished...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Punishment and Re-education of Juvenile Offenders

...rehabilitation on its detainees. Thesis Children and adolescents are individuals who are undergoing radical change in all aspects of their lives. Child development principles must be understood by the juvenile system. These formative years form the developmental trajectories for every individual (Arredondo, 2003). Children are likely to undergo irreversible damage in the application of punishment and deterrence inflicted without proper guidelines. However, the juvenile system has the potential to impact its detainees in a positive manner. Correction officers are charged with a unique responsibility. Expectations on them dictate that they have to reform delinquent youth. Juvenile systems...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Literature review on topic Juvenile Offenders and Re-offending Rates for FREE!

Contact Us