StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...
Free

Marpol convention - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
The Marpol convention refers to the international convention adopted in order to prevent marine pollution by ships either due to operational or accidental causes. …
Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.7% of users find it useful
Marpol convention
Read Text Preview

Extract of sample "Marpol convention"

Marpol convention The Marpol convention refers to the international convention adopted in order to prevent marine pollution by ships either due to operational or accidental causes. There were two treaties that were adopted for this cause; one in 1973 and the other in 1978, followed by the Protocol of 1997 (Annex VI) (International Convention, n.d; Marpol 73/78, n.d). This international convention was administered by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) owing to the increasing number of marine accidents such as oil spills and other forms of pollution from ships in to the marine environment. The problem was only aggravated by the increasing industrialization and countries introduced national regulations to control oil spills and other forms of pollutants in to their marine waters. The OILPOL convention, which was organized by the United Kingdom in 1954, was initially introduced to address oil pollution caused b ships. It was later transferred to the IMO. However, this was followed by the biggest oil pollution incident that raised doubts about the effectiveness of the steps taken to prevent oil pollution. Thus a convention held in 1973, which was signed by the United States and several other countries, included regulations to guide the transport of oil tankers and other pollutants such as chemicals, packed harmful substances, sewage and garbage which were incorporated as Annexes. The 1978 convention, which took place after a series of tanker accidents, included measures for tanker safety and prevention of pollution. As the previous 1973 convention was not made effective the protocol of 1978 adopted the parent convention and the combined protocols were referred to as Marpol 73/78 (Marpol 73/78, n.d). The Marpol convention has 6 technical annexes which include regulations that provide guidelines for reducing marine pollution caused by ships either during their routine operations or due to accidents. The Annex I cover the regulations for preventing pollution due to oil spills which came into force in 1983. Amendments to this annex, which mandated the incorporation of double hulls in oil tankers, were introduced in 1992. The Annex II included regulations that controlled the discharge of about 250 noxious liquid substances in bulk after their evaluation. Discharge of such substances within 12 miles from the nearest land is strictly prohibited especially in the Baltic and Black sea regions. This annex came into force in 1983. Annex III, which entered into force in 1992, deals with the transportation of packaged harmful substances and issues requirements for packing, marking, labeling, documentation, storage and quantity limits. Annex IV came into effect in 2003 and deals with the control of sewage pollution in marine waters. Annex V, which has been effective since 1988, details the types of garbage’s, mode of their disposal and distance from land. The most prominent inclusion is the ban on the disposal of all forms of plastic into the sea. Annex VI is the latest addition which came into effect in 2005. It lists the regulations for controlling air pollution from ships which includes the emission of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from ship exhausts and it prohibits the release of ozone depleting substances into the atmosphere. The annexes have been updated over the years by the addition of several amendments as required (International Convention, n.d). It is necessary for the state parties to accept annexes I and II while the other annexes are voluntary (Marpol 73/78, n.d). Thus considering the extensive caused to the marine water and its inhabitants by oil and other pollutants carried by ships the main aim of the Marpol convention was to preserve the marine environment through efforts taken to ensure reduction in operational as well as accidental discharge of pollutants into the sea. With the increasing foreign trade over the years pollutions from shipping operations have also drastically increased. The pollutants have not only affected the marine world but those released into the atmosphere has also contributed to air pollution. Thus it has become impertinent that all the countries worldwide engaged in shipping activities implement strict control measures by which the release of the pollutants is reduced to the minimum. Reference 1. International Convention for the prevention of pollution from ships (MARPOL). (n.d). International Maritime Organization. Retrieved July 6, 2011, from http://www.imo.org/About/Conventions/ListOfConventions/Pages/International-Convention-for-the-Prevention-of-Pollution-from-Ships-(MARPOL).aspx 2. Marpol 73/78. (n.d). eDPA Safety Management Services. Retrieved July 6, 2011, from http://edpashipping.com/marpol.aspx Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Marpol convention Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/law/1427560-marpol-convention
(Marpol Convention Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
https://studentshare.org/law/1427560-marpol-convention.
“Marpol Convention Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/law/1427560-marpol-convention.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Marpol convention

The European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

The United Kingdom is a member State and fully ratifies the jurisdiction of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. (Territorial Scope of the European Convention on Human Rights) The presumption of innocence has long since been a recognized principle of the British criminal justice system. However, the presumption has never been codified by legislative intervention but rather established firmly by common law precedents. The presumption of innocence obviates the necessity of placing the burden of proof on the prosecutor to prove the defendant’s guilt.

Viscount Sankey said ‘throughout the web of the English criminal law one golden thread is always to be seen, that i...
7 Pages (1750 words) Term Paper

The Significance of the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations

The ratification of the Convention was momentous in that it called for the ‘establishment of diplomatic relations between states’ and for ‘permanent diplomatic missions to take place by mutual consent.”2 The foundation of these diplomatic relations hold considerable value as it cemented equitably and just principles that govern diplomatic relations and practice among states as the rules afforded in the convention lay down the obligations of the receiving states on matters regarding amenities, privileges and immunities accorded to envoys, diplomats, diplomatic representatives and their families, anticipates potential abuse by members of the mission or and how the receiving state can counter such abuse.
...
11 Pages (2750 words) Assignment

The European Convention For the Protection of Human Rights

Although the European Court of Justice has interpreted the Convention as imposing positive obligations on member states, the text of the Convention itself belies such a claim. Moreover, the supremacy of the provisions contained in the Convention functions to compromise the predictability and consistency of national laws with the result that it places an undue burden on member states. 

The House of Lords together with the House of Commons in its Twenty-sixth Report titled, Joint Committee on Human Rights distinguishes between negative and positive obligations in the context of the European Convention on Human Rights. The joint committee offered the following explanation:

“Most of the ECHR rights are...
14 Pages (3500 words) Term Paper

International Trade: Warsaw Convention 1929

From time immemorial, humans have always organized or segregated into different structures like countries, communities, organizations, etc. Among these different structures, the organizations and its employees undertake activities through which they produce products. After humans’ and machines’ role in producing products, transportation only comes into the picture and transfers the manufactured products to their destinations as a form of International Trade. So, International transport compliments International trade perfectly, and vice versa. This correlation between International transport and trade is governed by a set of rules and regulations, being followed consensually by most of the countries of the world. These...
7 Pages (1750 words) Term Paper

UN Convention on the Assignment of Receivables

The basic structures of the UN law for receivables have influenced domestic law reforms, regional projects of harmonization of law such as Directives of the European Community, and international projects of unification such as the Principles for International Commercial Contracts of 1994/2004, promulgated by the Institute for the Unification of Private Law in Rome.
It, most likely, is the uniform law convention with the greatest influence on the law of worldwide trans-border commerce, and in some countries, lawyers and courts are today as familiar with the Convention as they are with their domestic law - it is the lingua franca of sales.
Part of the success is or might be due to the simple requirements of the application...
14 Pages (3500 words) Assignment

The Need for the Maritime Labour Convention

The main objective of The International Maritime Organization was to control and regulate international standards for shipping. Though the first maritime treaty was held in 19th century later in 1912 with the disaster of Titanic the need for an international treaty became unavoidable. Thus the first international safety of life at sea (SOLAS) convention, the most important treaty ever addressing maritime safety was spawned (Introduction to IMO). IMO first met in 1959 undertaking tasks such as developing and maintaining a complete regulatory framework for shipping. Further, it has widened its range of concerns toward safety, environmental concerns, legal affairs, technical cooperation, maritime security and efficiency of shipping;...
7 Pages (1750 words) Literature review

Aviation Law: Warsaw Convention

...Warsaw Convention The Warsaw Convention’s fundamental objective was to establish a uniform regime for international air carriage. However, it failed to realise its goal of uniformity, and it was widely criticised. The Warsaw System resolved the inconsistencies between the legal applications and practices of different countries involved in an agreement. Subsequently in 1999, the Montreal Convention came into play, and provided greater predictability to both passengers and carriers. This Convention provided interpretation of its terms and provisions, rather than leaving this duty to the national courts. Furthermore, each and every article, irrespective of whether it has been checked or not is deemed to be baggage under the new Convention...
12 Pages (3000 words) Term Paper

The Human Rights Act 1998 Contributes to the European Convention of Human Rights into UK Law

...ENGLISH LEGAL SYSTEM Introduction The Human Rights Act 1998 contributes to the European Convention of Human Rights (the ECHR) into UK law. This impacts the way in which judicial suits can be reasoned in court, since courts and tribunals are expected to give effect to the Convention rights listed in the Act. However the Act also identifies new responsibilities on Parliament and Government to legislate in agreement with the Convention. Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights states that: “Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion...
8 Pages (2000 words) Coursework

The United Nations Convention Against Torture

...The United Nations convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment defines torture as “any act where severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental is deliberately inflicted on a person with intention of obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession” (Paust, 2005, p817). The person is punished for an act he or a third person has committed or on suspicion of committing the act. Public authority normally instigates the pain or suffering to such person. In view of the escalating levels of insecurity in the globe, security agencies in different countries use different forms of extracting confessions from criminals or suspects and torture is the most prominent technique...
8 Pages (2000 words) Research Paper

Montreal Protocol, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and the International Maritime Organization

... and financial loss to the entire society (Nordquist & University of Virginia, 2012). It has also been amending some of the laws governing procedures and requirements of membership. The raging debate about the emission of greenhouse gases during shipment has also been tabled for consideration. In this respect, MO is developing strategies that would initiate scientific measures to cut on the carbon emission by the ships on transit. d. The areas covered by the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL). MARPOL is an agency of IMO that deals with the issues of pollution caused by routine operation of the ships and accidents that may arise from the sea. It has been going through policy reconstructions...
9 Pages (2250 words) Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Marpol convention for FREE!

Contact Us