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Sustainable Development of Iraqi Oil and Gas in International Law - Dissertation Example

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Contents Contents 1 1.Introduction 2 2.Evolution of the concept of sustainable development 4 2.1 The impact of Malthusians on the development of sustainability 4 2.2 The 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment 5 2.3 The 1987 World (Brundtland) Commission on Environment and Development 9 2.4 The 1992 UN Conference on the Environment and Development (Rio Summit) 14 2.4.1…
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Sustainable Development of Iraqi Oil and Gas in International Law
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Download file to see previous pages Conclusion 47 Bibliography 50 1. Introduction During several last decades the idea of sustainability has become a major environmental policy supported by many national governments and international organisations.1 One of the most comprehensive descriptions of the notion of sustainability was made by The International Institute for Sustainable Development, who claimed that sustainability is based on “the persistence of certain necessary and desired characteristics of people, their communities and organisations, and the surrounding ecosystem over a very long period of time (indefinitely)”.2 In order to achieve progress toward sustainability, it is necessary to improve and maintain both human and ecological systems providing their welfare, but not one at the expense of the other. Thus, the idea clearly expresses interdependent relationships between people and the world around them. Institute of Advanced Studies of the United Nations University asserts that: Few global issues have been attracting more attention in recent years than those associated with sustainable development, on which impinge such considerations as the growing world population, mushrooming urbanisation, expanding rates of consumption, climate change, biodiversity, and the adverse social and economic effects these factors are having on the populations of the developing and developed world as they impact the health of mankind and the environment. 3 Relationship between mankind and the environment has started in the distant past, when human beings lived in a complete symbiosis with nature. Over the centuries people worked for their needs without any concern about environmental protection and conservation. In the course of time mastery of humans over nature has been increasing, until it has culminated in the industrial revolution in 19-20th centuries. Such prominent characteristic features of that time as material-intensive way of production, the vast expansion of intercontinental trade and fast growth of population caused a considerable environmental damage.4 The impact of industrialization on nature can be well illustrated as follows: ...A vast acceleration of forest cutting, mining, land development, and fishing began. Industrialised societies saw forests disappearing to fuel the factories, mass migrations of people moving to cities to work in factories, and clouds of pollution hanging over the cities. ...The environment was turned into a site of economic competition between the various industrialised nations... 5 The first reaction of the society to environmental problems was a reactive approach that is characterised by clean-up activities mainly.6 But since the early 1960s, environmental problems have been eventually recognised as a political issue, which demands proactive measures. Nowadays it is widely recognised that healthy environment is essential to sustainable development. More and more economists, state officials and researchers understand that economic policy, based on using of forests, water, soils and other critical natural resources, without taking appropriate account of its current state and future development, is not wise and successful. Thus, the more proactive approach in resource usage is being taken, ensuring “ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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