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Criminology Theory - Research Paper Example

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Running Head: Criminological Theory Criminological Theory Name Tutor Course Date I. Evolution of Criminological Theory Introduction Criminology refers to the body of knowledge that deals with crime as a social incident. It involves how laws are made, how they are broken, and how people react after the laws are broken…
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Criminology Theory
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Download file to see previous pages Theories allow scholars to make hypotheses, which are tested through empirical research in order to come up with assumptions that make us understand the world better. Theories, which depict the causation of crime, are complex but studies from the past and present helps the researcher in understanding the behaviors among criminals. These theories are used to determine the best causes of action that can be used in order to ensure that crime is prevented from happening in our society. Traditionally, punishment was very harsh and the police used brutality when recording statements from suspects without having to understand why certain people committed certain crimes. In addition, the punishments meted out on convicts were harsh and as a result, scholars begun to study criminology in order to ensure that punishments were fair (DeMelo, 2001). Classical School Before 1789, the law system, punishment, and access to justice were barbaric. The classical school’s interest was not the study criminals but it focused on understanding the legal processes and law making. According to this school of thought, criminals knew the consequences of their actions and they even weighed the options before they engaged in any criminal activity. In addition, punishment was designed for the purposes of deterring crime and it was painful than the pleasure one got from engaging in any criminal activity. ...
The human behavior is motivated by attainment of pleasure and the ability to avoid pain. Natural law reveals actions that people should not be engaged in, but the punishments that criminals received were not deterrent in nature, but brutal. No forms of punishments that criminals receive should be used to take way a person’s happiness while in the society. This is because according to Beccaria, a person is ready to relieve a minute amount of happiness in order to live in a secure and humble environment. Men do not want to be under scrutiny at all times and they feel more independent when the scrutiny is at the minimum (Beccaria 2009). Pleasures in human beings can be described as that of skill, wealth, sense, amity, piety, and benevolence. In addition, a good name, malevolence, memory, power, relief, and expectation constitute to feelings of pleasure in a person. Pleasures can be complex or simple. People will do everything to ensure that they have pleasure as opposed to pain. Pleasures and pains are caused by certain actions, however, the amount of the pleasure or pain felt is not proportional to the causing effect. Since majority in the society look for pleasure at all times, Bentham notes that people should be given a free will to enjoy their lives as long as they do not inflict pain on others (DeMelo, 2001). On the other hand, Bentham focused on utilitarianism because he believed greatest happiness for the majority. This could not be achieved without changing the justice system because the leadership of that time was corrupt and barbaric. The people, according to Bentham measure the probabilities between future and present pleasures against future ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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