Name Institution Course Instructor Date Direct manipulation interface Direct manipulation is a mode of interaction between a user and a computer that allows the user to continuously give commands and receive feedback in the form of objects made to represent specific actions and reactions (metaphors) in the real world…
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The direct manipulation interface is a more efficient mode of interaction where the user points at metaphors on the computer and the commands given on their behalf, unlike the line command that requires them to key in the commands by themselves. Direct manipulation, being easier and faster at executing commands, is a preference of majority computer users today, especially designers and gamers as it supports the creation of virtual environments. A virtual environment is a simulation by means of a computer that creates a false or aped environment in which a computer user can perceive themselves in, and interact with objects in it (Montfort, Nick, & Noah 485). The direct manipulation interface has three main principles that make it a preference for a larger cross-section of computer users today. The first principle is the ability to virtually represent the objects of interest continuously in graphic forms and in almost real appearances. The other principle is the support of fast, reversible actions that are immediate and the last principle is the ability to directly manipulate a command on an object after using a pointing device to locate it. These principles are universal in that they are almost similar from system to system, therefore allowing frequent users to familiarize with, and use them anywhere. Application of direct manipulation interface in games Direct manipulation supports graphical representation of objects, an application extended and put to use in games, as they require simulation to create virtual environments that enable the user to perceive of them being in them. 3D renderings of virtual environments of action excite the user, further engaging them and letting them take roles and control avatars in games. The user interacts with virtual characters who act as drivers, players, dragons and so on in virtual environments with highways, hills, water, and fire. In order for the user to interact with the virtual characters and environments, they require game controls to direct their subjects. Direct manipulation enables the user to use buttons or other game controls and not type lengthy syntax commands. This makes the user enjoy the game without much cramming of commands. The game controls in the games give instructions or commands to the virtual objects or characters that result in rapid responses that prompt the user to correct their moves or perform moves that are more complex thus actively engaging in the virtual gaming (Montfort, Nick, & Noah 499). Types of game interfaces There are two types of game interfaces: three-dimensional and two-dimensional. 3-D game interface is the representation of geometric data in a form that has length, width, and height (has x, y and z-axes) such that it is visible from all perspectives and has the perception to hold mass. 2-D interface is a representation that displays graphics on a screen by use of pixel arrays. It has an X and Y-axis only (Cellary, Wojciech & Krzysztof 279). These two interfaces apply in gaming and computer aided design but are largely inapplicable in real life applications for several reasons. An example is in word processing or spreadsheet applications where using a 3-D interface will make it impossible or very hard to write and annotate. Another reason is that that due to the additional axis in 3-D
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