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Using of Windows 2000 - Essay Example

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More and more human functions are migrating to the internet.Myriad protocols have been developed over the years to protect computing systems that employ commerce transactions and contain highly confidential information…
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"Using of Windows 2000"

Download file to see previous pages There is a dire need to protect such information from prying eyes. (Scambray et al., 2003) The reputation of a company might be at stake if such information would be divulged. Moreover, people’s privacy would be compromised on a grandiose scale too if such information went public. There is also the risk of exploitation of such information. In order to protect these computing systems, numerous systems have been developed but loopholes still remain. This text is centred on an exploit for port 443 for a Windows 2000 based domain controller. Table of Contents Abstract 1 Introduction 3 Vulnerabilities in Networks 3 Delineating HTTPS and Port 443 4 Case Study 4 Assumptions 4 Way Forward 5 Analysis of Assumptions 5 Gathering Intel for Attack 5 Accessing the Server 6 Reason for Buffer Overflow 8 Securing a Foothold 8 Conclusion 9 Bibliography 10 Introduction Windows 2000 was developed by Microsoft as a business solution to host data and other services. A total of four different editions of Windows 2000 were released which were Professional, Server, Advanced Server and Datacentre Server. Other limited editions were also released by Microsoft in 2001 but the baseline of Windows 2000 being a business machine persisted. (Pastore, 2003) On its release, Windows 2000 was marketed as the most secure Windows ever built. (Microsoft, 2000) However security flaws within the Windows 2000 framework continued to plague the system right till the lifecycle end in July 2010 when Microsoft stopped issuing new security updates. (Microsoft, 2011) Vulnerabilities in Networks Windows 2000 has been likened to the eggshell concept. Similar to the egg’s shell, the exterior security layer is robust yet vulnerable. However, as soon as the exterior security layer is breached, the inside of the network is “mushy” and easier to manipulate. This general principle is not limited to Windows 2000 based network servers but to networks in general too. (Ethical Hacker Network, 2011) In general various vulnerabilities exist on network machines especially in respect to ports that can be scanned and accessed for intrusion. The possible exposed ports all have the potential to be converted into vectors for an attack on the concerned machine. The most common ports utilised by various applications on a typical Windows based machine are listed below to delineate vulnerability. (Ethical Hacker Network, 2011) TCP Port Applications 20 FTP data channel 21 FTP control channel 23 Telnet 25 SMTP 53 Connection oriented DNS (resolution on UDP 53) 80 HTTP 88 Internet Key Exchange (IKE) 110 POP3 (mail) 135 Windows RPC Endpoint Mapper 137 NETBIOS Name Service 139 NETBIOS Session 389 LDAP 443 HTTP/S 445 Common Internet File System / native SMB on Windows 2000 and higher 636 LDAP over SSL 1433 SQL Server (1434 if the port scanner can perform UDP too) 1723 PPTP 3268 LDAP to a Windows Global Catalogue Server 3389 Remote Desktop Protocol (Windows Terminal Service) It must be kept in mind that these ports are available for Windows based machines. If other OS are being utilised, the machine’s vulnerability may lie at other ports which would be open. (McInerney, 2000) This investigation is concerned with port 443 used for HTTP/S services and so it will be looked into in more detail. Delineating HTTPS and Port 443 HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) is a combination of the simple HTTP with an additional SST/TLS security layer. This helps to encrypt data being moved through web pages. Generally this protocol is used for online payments and transactions. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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