Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Organizational performance has been an issue of intensive and extensive studies.Organizations have gone to the heights of conducting self-research in order to ensure maximization of the available human capital…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER92.3% of users find it useful
Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results"

Download file to see previous pages At the beginning of the 20th Century, large businesses in America began the adoption of scientific management, an idea initiated by Fredrick Taylor. His idea involved the division of tasks into small portions that would be done by the employees like automatons. These studies have varied to include the effects of the physical environment on the workforce in an effort to ensure maximum productivity. Western Electric Company conducted studies in their Hawthorne plant to establish the relationship between productivity and the influence of the physical conditions. The initial studies began around November 1924 where they evaluated the social effects as well as the experimenter effects. Elton Mayo, who became a professor of industrial research at Harvard later on, supervised the studies (Mayo 64). The initial studies focused on the influence of lighting on the productivity of the workers. Two groups of employees were involved in this study; one group’s lighting was varied while the control group’s lighting remained under the same conditions. When light remained constantly unchanged the two groups demonstrated the same level of productivity. Lighting in the test group was reduced, a situation that raised complains among the group members (Steven and John 5). To further demonstrate the effect, the researchers changed the bulbs daily in the presence of the workers. Despite the bulbs replaced being the same, some improvement in productivity was noticeable in the test group. The findings were that the group with improved lighting demonstrated an improved productivity compared to the control group. In explaining the findings, the researchers concluded that the workers felt motivated by the changes. To the workers, the change was a demonstration that the management was concerned about them. The mental stimulation that they were being treated in a special way encouraged them to be active in their work. Another study was conducted in the relay assembly Test Room using six workers who had worked for the company for some time. Five of them were set to work in the assembling area while the sixth was to supply them with the parts they would require. The study was to focus on the effects of changing the working arrangements on the employees’ productivity (Gale 439). The researchers introduced various variables such as breaks, reduced working hours, and provision of food during the breaks. The breaks were varied, initially they were introduced to two-five minutes break that was done according to their suggestion. This was later changed to two-ten minutes breaks, during this period productivity was seen to improve. Consequently, the researchers adjusted the breaks to six-five minute breaks, these did not go well with the employees, they complained and their total productivity that was measured by the total output reduced (Franke and Kaul 625). Reduction of the total working hours by thirty minutes depicted an increased level of productivity, further reduction showed an increase in hourly output but the total output per day was drastically reduced. The researchers concluded that the feeling of the employees was that their work was being checked individually. Therefore, the workers were motivated by working as a group, having supervisors that were concerned about their welfare and having a special treatment in the workplace. Another aspect under observation was the social effect and its influence on productivity. This study was done in a bank wiring room where the workers were subjected to the assembling of telephone switching equipment, a task that involved the processes of wiring, soldering, and inspection. At the initial stages of the study, the workers were not open to the observer and had limited ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results Research Paper”, n.d.)
Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results Research Paper. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/human-resources/1494461-a-brief-discretion-of-the-hawthorne-studies-and
(Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results Research Paper)
Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results Research Paper. https://studentshare.org/human-resources/1494461-a-brief-discretion-of-the-hawthorne-studies-and.
“Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results Research Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/human-resources/1494461-a-brief-discretion-of-the-hawthorne-studies-and.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results

Critical thinking (studies and results)

...?Critical thinking (studies and results) Critical thinking, one of the most effective ways of taking charge of one’s professional and personal life, has been studied, discussed, reviewed, etc. for several years. Although it is typically discussed in Psychology studies and classes, critical thinking has a major role in one’s life and decisions in education, career selection, personal happiness, etc. and it makes one a better thinker in every aspect of life: in career, and as a consumer, citizen, friend, parent, and lover. “Critical thinking is the disciplined art of ensuring that you use the best thinking you are capable of in any set of circumstances.” (Paul and Elder, 7) Therefore, the role of critical thinking in personal life... thinking...
1 Pages(250 words)Research Paper

Description

...for the nectar among the flowers and tree blossoms, and in the process achieve its useful purpose of pollination. This explains why honeybees are very good at finding nectar; a honey bee (species name is Apis mellifera) has 170 odor receptors, compared to only 62 in the fruit fly or the 79 receptors in mosquitoes (Kloeppel 1); bees need a good sense of smell to find food, distinguish between flowers, communicate with other bees, or detect dangers. Conclusion Bees play an important role in agriculture because their action of pollination results in the fertilization of fruits, vegetables, and trees that help in food production for humans. It is noted that pollination has declined due to massive loss of bee populations from...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

The effect the Hawthorne Studies has had on contemporary management

...?Effect of Hawthorne Studies on Contemporary Management By The field of management has existed in the human society for many decades. This can be traced to the historical kingdoms and early empires. Kings utilized management to govern their territories. Effective management led to the flourishing of past kingdoms, while poor management resulted in the collapse of Kingdoms and empires in the past. Similarly, today, companies consider management as an important factor that highly influences the performance of the company. Nonetheless, the performance of a company is influenced by the productivity of employees. Therefore, management in a company mainly influences the employees and their performance. In this case, therefore, effective... up of...
9 Pages(2250 words)Essay

Hawthorne Effect

...to receive better results. Experimental Hawthorne Studies also helped to prove importance of social variables when estimating productivity. Initially, an experimental group of six female employees had to work in private separated workplaces, and then all the employees were moved into one big hall. As it was easier for them to communicate and socialize with one another in a shared room, their productivity started decreasing. Besides, the employees demonstrated stable rise of productivity in those groups, where there was a good contact established between them and their supervisor. As soon as the members of an experimental group started receiving attention and...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Hawthorne Studies and Experiments

...wire room experiment). It was very hard on the researchers part to volunteers. Numerous literature are available depicting trust on the "Hawthorne Experiments" or "Hawthorne Effects" by saying that it prevents 1. Delinquency in workers: the combination of goals and feedback produced "Hawthorne Effect". By adopting the experimental results in schools the goals of the students can be accomplished. 2. Correctional Workers: according to the National Research Council Report (Sechrest, White and Brown, 1979) which is based on the effectiveness of the rehabilitation program for offenders, only few depictions were available favoring the...
12 Pages(3000 words)Book Report/Review

Hawthorne effect

...Hawthorne Effect Introduction The Hawthorne study conducted by Elton Mayo at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric Company between 1927 and 1932 gave rise to the human relations movement. According to Mayo, the informal work groups have a significant effect on worker performance. In this study, emotional factors were found to influence productivity to a greater extent than logical factors. Group standards and sentiments were more important determinants of a worker’s output than the wage or incentive plan. Parsons (1974) defined it as "Generalizing from the particular situation at Hawthorne, I would...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Nathaniel Hawthorne

...of Hawthorne’s stories come from his Puritan background (James and McCall 46). Puritans believe in hell fire, sinners, and an all mighty God. All of Hawthorne’s stories have this type of Puritan moral lesson. Nathanial Hawthorne believed in God. He also believed that humans faced an afterlife. Hawthorne once stated “Our Creator would never have made such lovely days, and given us the deep hearts to enjoy them, above and beyond all thought, unless we were meant to be immortal” (Eldredge 12). This statement shows Hawthorne believed in a Creator. It also shows that humans would be immortal in an afterlife. It is obvious that...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Nathaniel hawthorne

...Topic 2: Nathaniel Hawthorne Nathaniel Hawthorne became one of those who helped shape what was to be the American brand of narrative with its characters unique from the European tradition and literary convention, particularly in terms of characterization. Hawthorne humanized his characters by infusing in each a dimension of his persona and combining both virtues and flaws. As a consequence, it enabled the author to steer his tales and the characterization of his heroes and villains towards what one would expect to find in daily life. This paper will explore this dimension in two of his most notable works, The Marble Faun and the Scarlet Letter. Particularly, I will compare these...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

DESCRIPTION

...A Lawyer’s Expression after Winning a Court Case A Lawyer’s Expression after Winning a Court Case Lawyers take time to prepare before representing their clients in court. They know that the failure to identify the diminutive aspects of a case occasion a loss. Conversely, lawyers acknowledge that they compete in court with other lawyers of similar or even better credentials than theirs. In effect, lawyers deliver each presentation and plea in court in a powerful, compelling, memorable, and confident manner while trying to establish rapport with the jury and keeping jurors captivated in order to win a case. Therefore, a heavy sigh of relief and a feeling of victory cannot describe a lawyer’s expression after winning a court case... Lawyer’s...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

SPSS Analsis for Corporate social performance and results description

...SPSS Exercise ID ID Lecturer You have to use Independent Sample T-Test with for Compare B2B versus B2C as a factor with: a. Social Disclosure Score The average mean for social disclosure in regard to B2C is 52.75 while that related to B2B is 51.90. Group Statistics B2B & B2C N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Social Disclosure Score B2C 188 52.75 14.989 1.093 B2B 144 51.90 13.600 1.133 We now check for significance difference in the mean social disclosure between the two groups (B2C and B2B). From the table below, the p-value for Lavene’s test is 0.061 (a value greater than 5% significance level, this means that the variability in the two conditions is about the same we therefore assume equal variances and use the p-value... Exercise ID...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Description of the Hawthorne Studies and What Were the Results for FREE!

Contact Us