This essay describes human resource management strategies and models as well as the history of transition from the personnel management to human resource management (HRM), that is categorized by significant changes in theory and practice, that are analyzed by the researcher…
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ment theories and the softer version of early HR theories revealed that both used the same terminology of integrating with organizational goal and vesting control in the line with the difference in emphasis. Personnel management’s emphasis was on non- managerial workforce whereas HRM theories emphasize the role of managers and the core of workforce. HRM views line managers as business managers maximizing organizational profits and not just people’s managers. HRM also emphasizes the role of senior managers in building and maintaining the organizational culture. The stakeholders identified by the model include are shareholders, management, employee groups, government, community and unions. Various situational factors include work force characteristics, business strategy and conditions, management philosophy, labor market, unions, task technology and laws and societal values. These two factors together determine the HRM policy choices for the organization. This HRM policy will determine the level of employee involvement, human resource flows, reward systems and work systems. The resultant HR outcome will be reflected in employee commitment and competence, congruence and overall HR cost effectiveness in the organization as well as individual and societal well being (Taylor et al. 2008). Some of the major advantages of this holistic model are (Armstrong, 2006) It identifies and incorporates a wide range of stakeholders and their interests in the model. It recognizes the explicit and implicit tradeoffs between interests of various stakeholders. It recognizes the importance and role of human capital in the form of employee influence as an influencing factor and hence questions the supervisory style of work organizations. It recognizes a broad range of contextual...
The researcher of this essay aims at identifying how much this integration of human resource management is being successful by critically analyzing the three models namely Michigan, Harvard and Choice model. With growing pressure global competition along with the increasing number of educated employees who demanded more involvement in the organization, the need for the development of a human resource framework was felt. Scholars at Harvard business school responded by providing a broad casual mapping of the determinants and consequences of human resource management (HRM) policies. According to this model effective HRM revolves around the concept of balancing the interests of the various influence groups and the ever changing situational factors. This model is considered dynamic because the situational factors and influence groups keep on changing. Michigan Model catered the problem of humanistic approach, which the soft model of Harvard was accused of with a harder approach treating human resource in the same way as other resources of business. This model has quantitative approach that implies that human capital should be obtained as cheaply and simply as possible. Warwick model was developed by Warwick University. This model further propagated the transition of people management to human resource management with its emphasis on environmental factors and business strategy. In conclusion, the researcher states that these concepts of strategic HRM still needs further improvement.
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Seven steps can be illustrated in the following manner. Clearly Defined Business Strategy Top management of the company needs to communicate business objective throughout the organization in a clearly defined manner helping individual employees to understand the objective precisely.
This function deals with issues of staff management, particularly – over hiring, compensation and performance supervision (Goeldner & Ritchie, 2009 p. 89). Other roles of the function include safety wellness, development of the organization, employee motivation, communication, benefits, training and the administration of the functions of the human resources capital available at the organization.
Therefore organisations which are looking to gain a competitive advantage, thus the implication of strategic human resources are a key factor for performance of the organisation. Strategic HRM is all about adaptation and integration. The strategic HRM concept has gained momentum and is mainly due to importance of strategic human resource, the way strategic HRM is managed, integrated, developed, retained, engaged and finally utilised and gain a competitive advantage over its competitors.
The development of technology has facilitated managers in using self-service tools. The tools help in changing the mutual work of both HR and line managers, altering the types and styles of work that both perform and thus affecting the result of the business.
Ideally performance management has to include all aspects associated with producing specific or desired performance; these aspects should include performance appraisal, training and development as well as behavior of employees. Most of the times, performance management includes measurement of performance metrics such as productivity, quality, turn around time, schedule adherence or attendance etc.
As a result of these developments, HRM has become a major thrust area where the focus is on synergizing and propelling organizations to seamlessly integrate with the macro environment. The field of HRM can become a greater strategic contributor to organizational performance and success (Mathis and Jackson, 2003).
Strategic human resource management is defined as an approach to human resource management that has the goal of using people most wisely with respect to the strategic needs of the organisation”.The study also concludes that workers are essential in all performance management processes and drives.