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strike failed to a considerable level, but it evoked labour upheaval, social change, political mainstream and organization among the American labourers. The workers at Ohio and Baltimore railroad went on strike because their wages were reduced twice over the previous year. The striking workers refused to let the trains run until all the pay cut were returned to respective employees affected.1
Following the civil war, railway industry was the leading sector in industrial growth. The development of several railway lines was fuelled by the government grants and subsidies during 1870s, making the railroad become the largest commercial sector in USA. The Chicago Tribune termed it as “the very heart and life of the modern system of commercial existence.” As the expansion of the railway continued, their economic and political power grew dramatically. In contrast, the workers in the railroad industry lacked political as well as an economic power. An increasing influx of workers from Europe and rural areas to the city meant that labour supply surpassed demand. Since an individual worker was not considered as valuable commodity, several companies rarely had a good incentive to respond to the workers needs. In addition, there were little ideologies of solidarity among workers and labour unions were being viewed as criminal gang organizations. Some existing unions were unpopular with the public and were not able to execute their duties because they feared facing legal challenges.
The problem faced by some labour movement intensified in 1873 when economic panic erupted. The unemployment rate was at 25% and the value of an individual worker dropped considerably. Moreover, as the government continued cutting the wages, the unions and workers revolted and fought back. Railroad workers faced the harsh working environment and were not able to collectively respond to the persistent wage cut.
As corporations suffered consistently, reduced revenues and economic depression
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There would be employment, business opportunities and high standard of living for the citizens of the country if the economy of the country is strong. There are a number of factors that affect the strength of the economy. Such factors can be the policies designed by the authorities such as; fiscal policies and monetary policies.
The great sit-down strike at General Motors (“GM”) which happened in the period of 1936-37, involved workers at several Flint plants, who sought to organize on behalf of the United Automobile Workers (“UAW”) (Antoine, 1900). The union completely paralyzed the production for forty-four days (Weinstone, 1), by occupying buildings and refusing to leave the plants (Antoine, 1900).
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It was in this cultural climate that the American unions emerged. Pennsylvania was one of the most pro-active in these measures and the state contains a long history of unionization. Today the state is considered pro-union for a variety of reasons. This essay considers the historical elements that have contributed to turning Pennsylvania into a pro-union state.
During the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, technology was believed to be the governing force in the American society. This belief by the twentieth-century scholars, then referred to as “technological determinism”, more than any other factor has proved over time that changes in technology impact on societies and their processes.
Figures show that over 100,000 imprisoned people gained their freedom through Underground Railroad activity. Most of the freed slaves joined the movement of Underground Railroad to free the other enslaved people by sending them far away in Canada and Mexico.
These excessive forces and powers are misused by some officers in situations where the use of excessive forces is not needed. That is, in many cases police go much further in its powers such that they start pinching, shooting, and beating those who are not even involved in the scene.
The railway received its charter in 1831 - it was called Harlem Line then. The intended route would connect towns in Westchester, Putnam and lower Dutchess Counties with New York City. The railroad inevitably attracted attention of businessmen. In 1848, knowing that the Harlem Line Railroad would pass through Southeast, in Putnam County, Walter and James Brewster constructed passenger and freight stations, donating the buildings to the Harlem Line Railroad.
He lived as a vagabond and returned to his family infrequently. All his life, William Avery Rockefeller gained repute for shady schemes rather than useful work. John’s mother, Eliza, was a homemaker and devout Baptist. She tried to keep an
ating factor between this clash between labourers and their employers was the magnitude and speed at which the ‘revolt’ spread from coast to coast.
The US army and state militia were required to restore order and the strike was over after hundreds were temporarily jailed
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