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The proposal culminated in the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment, which formally abolished slavery in America. After the demise of Abraham Lincoln, who was the champion of reconstruction, Andrew Johnson continued his policies and vowed to abolish slavery altogether and reconstruct America.
Various states moved fast to institute fundamental laws that curtailed the full acquisition of the rights of slaves. Mississippi quickly instituted the anti-black codes limiting the free movement of the freed slaves (Franklin 210). The Civil Rights Act occasioned a move by the Congress further to assert the changing status of former slaves. The Civil Rights Act conferred on former slaves the right to own and transfer property and the right to equal treatment as the white Americans. However, even with the ratification of the civil rights act, the definition of a “citizen” still remained obscured. In an affirmative move, the Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1867.
The fundamental aim of the 14th amendment was to confer liberty and citizenship to the freed slaves. Prior formation of the civil rights act, various states employed various attempts to limit the freedom of former slaves. For instance, Louisiana adopted the grandfather clause that only allowed men to vote if their grandfathers were eligible voters prior to the civil war. The blacks in the south responded to these limitations by the states through mass migrations to the urban northern states. However, in a tactical move to stifle the interests of freed slaves, Washington in his Atlanta Compromise asserted the need for the slaves to engage in economic production and disenfranchise from social agitation. Du Bois philosophically attacked Washington for his stance against the freed slaves. In his “the souls of Black folks,” Du Bois agitated not only for education but equal access to education for the blacks (Franklin 254). He strongly expressed
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The Civil War would have its most important effect on the lives of millions of African American slaves, as a large proportion of them would be decreed 'free' toward the end of the war. Having achieved this concession from their white masters, African Americans would rejoice their newly won liberties and rights in the years following the war – also referred by historians as the period of Reconstruction.
It began with President Lincoln’s affirmative actions for a race-blind, equal and reunited America. While Lincoln took a more lenient and tolerant course to end slavery and reuniting the South, the Radical Republicans opposed it on the ground that Lincoln reconstruction plan had freed the slaves without paying much attention to establishing their socio-political, economic and other rights.
The author states that the majority of the slave population in America, at that time, consisted of African Americans. Their community was the one deeply involved and mostly affected by the war. African Americans participated in huge numbers in the war as soldiers either enslaved by the confederate rulers or as loyalists to the Northern states.
Further aggravating the situation was the fact that the wounds of defeat were still fresh in the collective psyche of White Southerners and these wounds were deepened with the rising political and economic power of their Northern conquerors (referred to as carpetbaggers) as well as their former slaves.
One such person is Harriet Tubman. A study of her life and achievements reveals her a seminal contribution to the liberation of blacks from the bonds of slavery. Harriet Tubman was born between 1820 and 1825 in Dorchester County, Maryland, as Araminta Harriet Ross, or ‘Minty.’ She was one of nine children born to Harriet and Ben Ross, both enslaved blacks.
World War II marked a fundamental loss of innocence for humanity, as the true potential for depravity of human beings became apparent upon the uncovering of the Nazi concentration camps and other atrocities. In effect, the world was left with a physical, economic and moral disaster from which a full recovery would be the most challenging reconstruction undertaking ever attempted.
This has ultimately brought new companies into the computer market all around the world in order to fulfill the ever increasing demand of more sophisticated computer systems (ERGONOMICS, 2013). Apple Inc. managed this challenge efficiently and effectively through different
These aren’t any ordinary interactions, rather quite complex ones which had an immense impact in the early development episodes of the United States of America. It has also been noted that the technique used in the book has
In the post-civil conflict period, the constitution went through three modifications. The amendments have been some of the most crucial augmentations to the constitution to the inventive Bill of Rights. The improvements were the 13th, 14th and 15th amendment. Their implementation took place in progression.
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