Use of technology and weapons, and lack of unity among Africans helped European nations to dominate African countries easily. In 1884, Berlin conference was held which resulted in ‘Scramble for Africa, ‘and the entire African continent except Ethiopia and Liberia was dominated by various European powers like Great Britain, Italy, Germany, France and Portugal. European nations developed several plantations in these colonies, and also collected minerals like gold, diamond, tin etc from African countries.
Asia was under western influence from 16th century although there was no much direct control in any of its territories. As Spielvogel notes, after the industrial revolution which brought increased demand for Asian raw materials, and with the long depression in 1870, the indirect rule was changed to direct colonial rule. India was controlled by British through British East India Company. In 1857, a revolt broke out by native Indian soldiers who were suppressed by the British. Subsequently, India became a colonial subject to the British in every respect. In china, imperialism began with opium war (1839-1842), when Chinese halted the import of opium. In the war, Chinese military forces were destroyed. China was forced to open eleven treaty ports, and to give special privilege for British to trade and supervise in china. Various western nations acquired several territories of china and claimed trading rights.