The world changed dramatically during the latter half of the nineteenth century mainly due to European imperialism. Western powers expanded their empires to almost all the parts of Asia and Africa. As described by McDougal-Littell, Africa, ‘the dark continent’ was not much explored until late 19th century…
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Use of technology and weapons, and lack of unity among Africans helped European nations to dominate African countries easily. In 1884, Berlin conference was held which resulted in ‘Scramble for Africa, ‘and the entire African continent except Ethiopia and Liberia was dominated by various European powers like Great Britain, Italy, Germany, France and Portugal. European nations developed several plantations in these colonies, and also collected minerals like gold, diamond, tin etc from African countries.
Asia was under western influence from 16th century although there was no much direct control in any of its territories. As Spielvogel notes, after the industrial revolution which brought increased demand for Asian raw materials, and with the long depression in 1870, the indirect rule was changed to direct colonial rule. India was controlled by British through British East India Company. In 1857, a revolt broke out by native Indian soldiers who were suppressed by the British. Subsequently, India became a colonial subject to the British in every respect. In china, imperialism began with opium war (1839-1842), when Chinese halted the import of opium. In the war, Chinese military forces were destroyed. China was forced to open eleven treaty ports, and to give special privilege for British to trade and supervise in china. Various western nations acquired several territories of china and claimed trading rights.
(“European Imperialism in Africa and Asia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
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(European Imperialism in Africa and Asia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
“European Imperialism in Africa and Asia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/history/1651739-european-imperialism-in-africa-and-asia.
With competition and success in economic activities in the West, countries struggled for raw materials, a place to invest for capital and the search for ready markets for their commodities. Later, politicians
China’s foremost interest was to obtain slaves from Africa, peacocks from India whereas African required cowrie shells and Maldives from the Indian Ocean (McKay et al 2011). Europeans wanted silk and spices from Asia but, unfortunately, they did not have desirable merchandise to give in return.
Africa was no exception and by 1900, 90% of the continent would come under European domain.1 The reasons for this fast spread expansion into Africa have been the subject of debate for nearly a century. While some theorists hold that expansion was brought on by a purely economic drive to control new markets, others see the virulent nationalism of European powers and the ensuing rivalries as the main cause.
During the nineteenth century, the British Empire was composed of various regions of the world, but it had control over small parts of Africa. The British rule had strongly influenced on important as well as developed regions across the globe ranging from Australia to Hong Kong, Canada, America, and India.
This essay provides general information on colonization of Africa from the 1870s to 1900. During this time, Africa was generally subjected to aggressive European intervention via military invasion which political pressure eventually led to “conquest and colonization” so that all but Ethiopia and Liberia were conquered and colonized by the 20th century (Iweriebor, n.d.).
European Imperialism determined shapes of modern borders economies and politics.“For many states that remained theoretically sovereign, imperialism meant economic, and not political, subordination”. By‘Late-nineteenth-century imperialism was made possible by a number of key technological developments’ (p. 8).The initial Industrial Revolution arose in Great Britain.
The history of anti-colonial struggles is often divided into what is called "primary resistance" and "secondary resistance". The first are the struggles of African political communities against colonial invasions and incursions. The second are movements of anti-colonial liberation that developed within the colonial context.
There is no dearth of historians who hold that it is almost utterly difficult to establish as to whether Asia benefitted from or was harmed by Western imperialism and influence. However, the answer to this dilemma is not so amorphous or vague as it seems. Pure and naked 'profit motives' were the reasons why some of the most cultured and civilized powers of West choose to colonize Asia in the late 18th and early 19th century.
This is an indication that the decision by the European nations to colonize Africa was not right (Bush 17).
Leaders who planned on how to occupy Africa had no aim of developing the continent in their mind. Instead,
This paper shall discuss the thesis that in Africa, European colonialism served a moral purpose and was mutually beneficial to both parties in infrastructure development, social and economic development, modernization/ industrial development, and development of nationalism/ political unification, but these benefits did not outweigh the negative effects of the same.
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