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There are numerous progressive laws that have been devised in regard to education in Lebanon but they are yet to be enforced. These laws have a potential of improving the Lebanese education system and consequently improving the life of the Lebanese (Samira, Achim & Sarhan 64). Also, it can promote respect and understanding among all political and religious groups in Lebanon.
Education in Lebanon is compulsory. Compulsory education in the country was adopted as early as 1736 and influenced the adoption of the compulsory education in Ottoman Empire in 1869 (Hamdan 5). The compulsory education was abandon by the Ottoman Empire rulers but was readopted in Lebanon in 1959. In 1971, the Lebanese education system established Education Centre for research and Development (ECRD) (Hamdan 5). ECRD has a responsibility to drafting state schools’ textbooks, setting the curriculums and overseeing the Lebanese education system at large. Lebanon took part in the world conference that adopted World Declaration on Education for All which classifies education as a human right. This made Lebanese education system to set several objectives and means to achieve them. These objectives include broadening the means and scope of basic education, facilitating universal access to learning and promoting equity. ECRD also changed the curriculum to include subjects such as Theatre, Arts and IT at the basic education level. The ministry of education and higher education in 2004 published national strategy for education for all.
Lebanon education system consists of primary education and intermediate education, secondary education, vocational and technical education, and higher education (Samira, Achim & Sarhan 55). Primary education in Lebanon has been free since 1987. English, Arabic, and French are the instructional medium in the private schools. The duration of Lebanese primary education is 5 years (Hamdan 15). After completion of primary
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Introduction The economy of Iraq was once based on agriculture, which stipulated a large rural population. Nevertheless, due to oil production, an economic boom hit Iraq in the 1970s, and with the transformation of economic foundation, most of people shifted to urban centers.
Said suggests that Western scholarship of the Middle East reveals “a subtle and persistent Eurocentric prejudice against Arabo-Islamic peoples and their culture”. Said is convinced that, previously, the United States and Europe viewed the Middle East as the source of oil and petroleum or the source of terrorist threats.
The failure by the existing regimes, which in most cases are authoritarian in nature and have closed political systems, to provide these services to the people makes it easier for the Islamist movements to amass a large following through the spread of Islam ideology (Ayoob 956.).
The author states that the biggest asset of Middle East is the amount of oil that is concentrated in the region, which has simultaneously also emerged as one of the biggest problems. Therefore the Western population is highly accustomed to the propaganda of the Middle Eastern regions, and this has also brought Islam in the middle.
The author explains that the region has also had its fair share of instability, but there have also been peaceful times as well. In a globalized economy, the importance of the Middle East will continue to grow because of the economic potential in the region. The Middle East also has access to vast amounts of oil and gas.
Another issue often argued is that the US political elites have time and again maintained an indifferent attitude with respect to the atrocities suffered by countless Palestinians at the hands of Israeli