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Midterm - HIST - Essay Example

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The period was in 18th century. At this time, people grouped themselves based on ideologies. The most significant thing at the period was the opposing political ideologies. The ideologies were well…
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Midterm – HIST PART A King Louis XVI convened the E s General in 1789 in order a) Gain support for war against England. b) Gain support for an expedition to put down the rebellion in the colony of Saint Domingue.
c) Raise tax revenues.
d) Resolve the question of voting rights for the peasantry.
2. The lévee en masse, issued in April 1793, was:
a) A military requisition upon the entire French nation.
b) A new tax imposed by Louis XVI.
c) A new public works project to conserve the water of the River Seine.
d) None of the above.
3. The major powers at the Congress of Vienna included:
a. Russia, Prussia, Italy, and Great Britain.
b. Prussia, France, Belgium, and Great Britain.
c. Prussia, Austria, France, and Italy.
d. Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain.
4. The reform movement known as “Chartism” in Britain advocated for changes including:
a. Equal pay for women workers.
b. Birth control to ease population pressures.
c. Universal male suffrage.
d. All of the above.
5. By the end of the nineteenth century, Britain’s industrial advantage was being challenged by the growth of industrial production in:
a. The Balkans. c. Russia
b. Germany. d. Italy
Part B
Essay
In Europe, there was a period of people expressing different ideas and opinions. The period was in 18th century. At this time, people grouped themselves based on ideologies. The most significant thing at the period was the opposing political ideologies. The ideologies were well exemplified from 1815 to 1848 in different parts of Europe. In this period, there were those seen as liberals who wanted to see a change in already established political order. On the other hand, the conservative wanted the status quo to remain.
There were fundamental differences between liberalism and conservative. The difference was seen on their idea on what was right for the citizens. One of the differences was on self-rule and determination. The conservative were of the idea that self-rule and determination were not suitable for Europe. The idea was that such ideas were responsible for chaos and constant wars in Europe. For example, they cited the revolutionary America and France. The conservative believed the ideas were to stop if untold suffering and bloodshed was to end. Moreover, the ideas were seen as affecting lower classes in which the conservatives believed they required nothing more than peace and stability. On the other hand, the liberals were of the idea that time was ripe for the establishment of national government. They believed the old order was responsible for suffering and inequality that was rampant in Europe, at the period. They were against the domination of various regions by a few group of rich and noble in the society. Therefore, they demanded representative government.
Secondly, there were differences based on the economic state of the region in the period. For example, the liberal idea was that there should be a free market in the region. As a result, they called for uncontrolled private enterprise and non-government interference in the economy. On the other hand, the conservatives were opposed to the idea. They believed that the government had to have a hand in the regulation of the market, as well as ownership of property. For example, they controlled the distribution of land.
Third, there were significant political differences between the opposing sides. The differences occurred in terms of enjoyment of rights. The liberals spent most of their time fighting for rights. Moreover, the wanted a large portion of the middle class to be allowed to vote instead on concentrating it to few aristocratic individuals. This is because only those who owned property could vote at the period. Hence, only the noble who had large chunks of lands could vote at the detriment of the middle class most of which had no property. On the other hand, the conservative had differing ideas. They believed that civil rights were gained from the past and hence could not be guaranteed to everyone in the society.
The underlying differences led to political actions over the period in the region. The encounters were in terms of violence and conflict. The encounters occurred as conservative engaged in ways of suppressing advent of liberal ideas. As a result, various revolts occurred in Europe inspired by the liberals. For example, there was a revolt in Spain as the ruling elite failed to accept liberal constitution.
However, some of the conflicts led to accommodation of liberal and conservative policies in Europe during the period. The radical reforms were on the political realm for the liberals. For example, in Britain a policy was passed in 1932 that allowed the middle class to vote. Moreover, there was the rise to power of liberal leaders. For example, there was an election of a liberal leader in France such as Napoleon Bonaparte. On the other hand, there was a crucial liberal policy at the beginning of the period. The policy was passed at a convention in Vienna that aimed to ensure there was a political union between several states in the region. The other policy was accommodation of liberal ideas in some of the monarch in Europe such as the passage of civil rights.
In conclusion, the differences in Europe were significant for changes experienced in the region over the period. Read More
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