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The New Chinese Leadership - Assignment Example

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In this paper “The New Chinese Leadership” attention will be focused towards China and the policies and campaigns that in a major way influenced certain actions to be taken particularly under the three regimes namely Mao, Deng, and Jiang. There were certain policies and campaigns…
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Introduction Leadership is about using methods that are fit in order to rule and lead a certain group of people. Leadership entails qualities that help individuals influenced by a leader towards an assured goal or perspective. A range of governments in different states have various methods of leading. In this essay, attention will be focused towards China and the policies and campaigns that in a major way influenced certain actions to be taken particularly under the three regimes namely Mao, Deng and Jiang. Under the regimes of the three major change makers in China, there were certain policies and campaigns that arose and they helped with the maintaining and the building of the economic, social, political and cultural wellbeing of China and its people in general (Tanner, 102).
These leaders were influential even after they were not in power. Leadership at the time was categorized by generation titles (Sklarew, 35). The first political leader, Mao Zedong was categorized as the first generation leader, Deng Xiaoping taking the second generation title and Jiang Zemin taking the third generation title. Mao Zedong was a soldier, statesman and a Chinese Marxist theorist who led the nation to a higher standard. He made his nation turned out to be a communist revolution state. Mao was the founder of (PPC) ‘People’s Republic of China’, and it is through his involvement in politics that he converted China from what it was at the time to a undemocratic socialist state. Under the regimes of the three political figures, there arose the rise of industry and business becoming nationalized under the state ownership and reforms particularly in the socialist fields being implemented in all aspects of the everyday life of the people. There was the use of military ideologies implemented by the political figures. Taking for example Mao, he proclaimed the formation of the PPC and after ensuring that the reunification of China was a success, went ahead to enact the removal of the land reform (Wong, Yiu-chung, 24). This was done while still overthrowing the landlords who followed the system and the land sectioned into communes. Mao then again proceeded to lead a political campaign that was to be nationwide (MacFarquhar, 202). This campaign came to be known as the ‘Great Leap Forward’. It was meant to make the country modernized. A major setback that led to the initiation of the Cultural Revolution was the widespread famine. Mao collaborated with people in power that he knew would make the economy of the nation rise to another level (Zhu, Ying, and Stanley Rosen, 300).
During the regimes, there was also the formation of alliances that would pave way to a new nation that was ready for change. Though Deng was instrumental and provided a lot during the reconstruction of the ‘Great Leap Forward’, his policies differed with the then leaders’ political ideologies, Mao. Deng is considered the founder of a new mark of ‘socialist thinking’. He was known for the invention of socialism in the country. He created the socialist market economy through inventions of theories that assisted in the process. Deng brought about development to China. He brought about far-off venture, the worldwide marketplace and limited concealed struggle. He used various campaign methods to participate in the struggle against opposing groups. Some of the methods used involved military campaigns. The parties were pessimistically affected through the campaigns against communism. One particular party that was affected by the campaigns was the ‘Comintern Soviet advisers’, who in their own view saw the mobilization of the urban proletariat as the force for the advancement of communism. 
With policies in line, improving relations with the outside world was one of the most important philosophical outlines that were in the reform section of Deng’s reform program (MacFarquhar, 345). The major areas of concern were the social, political, and most important, the economic systems were meant witness changes after Deng’s rule. During Deng’s time as a leader, his goals in terms of reforms were summarized by the major income earning sectors of the economy, them being agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military. Strategies used in order to achieve the set aims were the ‘communalist market economy’, ‘communalism with Chinese individuals’ and the ‘New Economic Guidelines’ (Wong, Yiu-chung, 89). Models such as the Soviet model ceased to be followed and thus management was indirect through certain market mechanisms (Wong, Yiu-chung, 89). There was also the emphasis on the use of agriculture as a source of sustaining the economy and also that the agricultural output meant a lot to the economy. Certain policies encouraged a notable devolution of decision making in rural financial system. Other policies dictated that in order to motivate the labor force the use of material incentives was essential. This included allowing peasants to earn extra income by selling the product of their private plots at free market (Chu, Yun-han, 45). There was one characteristic during Jiang’s time that was different from the other regimes; he did not believe in the power of military rule, and often managed to stop demonstrations without ordering the use of military force. Jiang used domestic policy to fight crimes, where a major crackdown of dealing with corruption, crime and smuggling was to be curbed. The crackdown was termed as Strike Hard (Tien, Hung-mao, and Yunhan Zhu, 238).
Work Cited
Chu, Yun-han. The New Chinese Leadership: Challenges and Opportunities After the 16th Party
Congress. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004. Print.
Landsberger, Stefan, and Marien . Heijden. Chinese Posters: The Iish Landsberger Collections.
Munich: Prestel, 2009. Print.
MacFarquhar, Roderick. The Politics of China: The Eras of Mao and Deng. Cambridge [u.a.:
Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997. Print.
Sklarew, Bruce H. Bertoluccis the Last Emperor: Multiple Takes. Detroit: Wayne State Univ.
Press, 1998. Print.
Tanner, Harold M. China: A History. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co, 2010. Print.
Tien, Hung-mao, and Yunhan Zhu. China Under Jiang Zemin. Boulder, Colo. [u.a.: Lynne
Rienner, 2000. Print.
The American Experience: Nixons China Game. PBS/WGBH, 2000. Internet resource.
Wong, Yiu-chung. From Deng Xiaoping to Jiang Zemin: Two Decades of Political Reform in the
Peoples Republic of China. Lanham, MD [u.a.: Univ. Press of America, 2005. Print.
Zhu, Ying, and Stanley Rosen. Art, Politics, and Commerce in Chinese Cinema. Hong Kong:
Hong Kong University Press, 2010. Print. Read More
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