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The international system and global governance is important for understanding human conflicts because these political structures strongly influenced decision-makings that have global impacts and effects to nations. International diplomatic relations of nations, the organization…
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Identify the International System and Global Governance and explain why they are important for understanding human conflict?
The international system and global governance is important for understanding human conflicts because these political structures strongly influenced decision-makings that have global impacts and effects to nations. International diplomatic relations of nations, the organization of allied nations for economic and political causes, and the establishment and operation of United Nations are significant bodies that are constantly engaged in political discourse on trade, on conflict resolution, and in undertaking humanitarian assistance for refugees or the conflict-affected communities (Karns and Mingst, 2009). A deep understanding of the theory of international systems is therefore relevant to determine what are the policies enforced in conflict situation that may ran counter with domestic politics (Karns and Mingst, 2009). Spatial models for international disputes and theoretical concepts that could be key for cooperative resolution of issues (Bueno de Mesquita, 2010; Karns and Mingst, 2009).
Identify the War, Peace, and Human Rights and explain why they are important for understanding human conflict?
War causes devastation of properties and loss of untold number of lives; it costs billions of money in a territorial dispute, resource utilization, and due to revolution waged by people who wanted to change and democratize the system (Karns and Mingst, 2009). War in itself is a mirage of injustices and human rights violations as innocent civilians are stripped and subjected to indignity in the evacuation centers and in a perpetual flight for security and safety (Karns and Mingst, 2009). Experiences bared how war violated the fundamental and constitutional rights of all human beings. In a Hegelian doctrine of dialectics, the sad and traumatic experiences of war inspire people, and advocates from states and non-states for collaborative peace work to intercede for conflict resolution through meaningful dialogues and adoption of humanitarian principles for peace-building and conciliation efforts (Karns and Mingst, 2009). The peace-building efforts will include the need for accountability and effective global governance (Karns and Mingst, 2009).
Identify the Global Economy and Globalization and explain why they are important for understanding human conflict?
The global economy is characterized by the interdependency of nations in the maximization of resources through liberalized trading and exchanges of goods based on the purchasing power of nations. International commerce and liberalization of economy, as initiated by the Group of Twenty (G20) paved for a peaceful era when territorial expansion done through war in the medieval era is replaced with economic trading and commerce as the alternate economic-politics (Goldstein and Pevehouse, 2012). But the polarized nations and variegation of ideologies of people viewed globalization as domination of western nation; hence, they perceived it as an economic affront to weak and emerging economies. This could also be the reason why nations under liberalization adopt the principles of dominance, reciprocity and identity (Goldstein and Pevehouse, 2012). However, the dynamics of rapidly changing market, hyperinflation tendencies, and the weakening of purchasing power of each nation currencies should be understood well within the context of sustainable development. Although advance nations could readily provide loans and aids (Karns and Mingst, 2009), the empirical experiences of third world countries proved that it will take longer period before they can recover from the heavy burden of debts, others fall back in hyperinflation and abject poverty. The core issue here is the inequities and imbalanced institutional systems that perpetuate unequal enjoyment and genuine sharing of resources (Sen, 1999). Freedom is goal of genuine economic development, and only through enjoyment of this economic liberty of each nation people will not be stifled from economic opportunities and the complementarity of individual agency and social system (Sen, 1999).
Identify the International Crime, Terrorism, and Radical Islam and explain why they are important for understanding human conflict?
International crime refers to violation of international law; such happens when there is criminal offense done against an international treaty and international customary law, when the character of the crime is punishable under International Law, and a treaty caused liability for an act done and the same binds all nations who subscribed to a treaty. Some of the prominent international crimes are crimes against humanity, crime against peace and war crimes. Other crimes which fall within this category are crimes punishable under international law, such as drug trafficking, money laundering, illegal trafficking, and the like (Brown, 2003). Terrorism has been considered as a crime of peace and a crime against humanity. Following the September 11 twin-tower attacked in United States of America, anti-terrorism operation was launched by allied nations in regions where suspected terrorists hide; such operations were organized to find justice for all innocent civilians died (Brown, 2003). Violent attacks were waged in some region which reignited hatred, prejudice, and misunderstanding in the international communities. Such sustained until the capture and demise of Osama bin Laden at a military installation in Pakistan. Albeit this fact, there has been protracted conflicts between allied forces and armed elements in Middle East. Extremist group remained on the rise in a network aimed at doing economic destruction. Although inspired by religious fanaticism, this jihadist network advocated defeatism against any western powers including its allies (Sageman, 2008; Sageman, 2004).
Identify the 21st Century Global Security Challenges and explain why it is important for understanding human conflict?
After the collapse of cold war, there is an emerging effort for cooperative security measures and an endeavor for global stability in the 21st century (Karns and Mingst, 2009). The individual security is perceived to be in the midst of this collective security, collective defense, and in promoting social stability. Most conflicts occur in areas where extremist groups are concentrated, where there is massive proliferation of firearms and where rebellion flourishes. This is also the reason that the allied forces undertake transformation of security management and founded it using multiculturalist strategy (Brown, 2003). The common threats are terrorism, organized crime, illegal trafficking, illegal migration, epidemic diseases, and environmental catastrophes. The strategies are focused on consolidating state’s common values and upholding of the rule of law, prevention of local conflicts and restoration of stability in war torn areas and overcome security deficiency through allied nations. In doing these, security management is also innovated with the use of information technology as integral component in documenting, research, monitoring and reporting all security-related challenges (Brown, 2003). Recent phenomenon is the unpeace in region where there is ongoing extractive industries operated by foreign multinational company (Brown, 2003). The utilization of these resources also motivated extremist rebel groups to make some criminal designs and threats for violent attacks hence affecting oil and mineral production. This demand strengthening of international relations for coordination, monitoring and sanctioning whenever found necessary.
Identify the A Post-American World and explain why it is important for understanding human conflict??
Zakaria (2009) claimed that US need to adopt sound economic policies in its international relations like the rest of advanced nations to achieve fiscal reforms and to resolve problems pertaining to subsidies. As technology rise to complement to expansion of opportunities in global economy, this should be made as window for economic and political stability. Zakaria (2009) still encouraged the pillars and engine of economic growth to pursue market risks by combining technology and traditional ways of economic and international relations. America has maintained its importance and influence as a “default superpower (Zakaria, 2009).
References
Brown, P. J. Nuclear Weapons Proliferation in the Middle East. UK: Amazon Digital Services, Inc., 2003. Print.
De Mesquita, B. B. Principles of International Politics. 4rth Ed. Washington, D. C.: CQ Press 2010. Print.
Goldstein, J.S. & Pevehouse, J. C. International Relations. 10th ed. New York, NY: Pearson/Longman, 2012. Print.
Karns, M. P. & Mingst, K. International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance. 2nd Ed. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Pub., 2009. Print.
Sageman, M. Understanding Terror Network. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. Print.
Sageman, M. Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2008. Print.
Sen, A. Development is Freedom. New York, NY: Borzoi Book/ Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1999. Print.
Zakaria, F. The Post-American World. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009. Print. Read More
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