Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality - Assignment Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
This essay describes horizontal inequalities occur when significant disparity exists between different culturally defined groups of people. The existence of such horizontal inequalities elicits animosity between the groups involved and increases the risk of a violent conflict…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97% of users find it useful
Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality"

Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality
Horizontal inequalities occur when significant disparity exists between different culturally defined groups of people. The inequalities may be of political, social, economic or cultural status nature according to Stewart (2010). The existence of such horizontal inequalities elicits animosity between the groups involved and increases the risk of a violent conflict.
There is evidence worldwide of peaceful co-existent of different ethnic and religious communities. However, where horizontal inequality exists between communities a conflict is inevitable. Such a conflict is not directly caused by the cultural differences but by the political, economic and social disparity existing along the cultural line. A recent violent confrontation among different communities in Kenya is a typical example of political inequalities’ induced conflicts. Armed struggle in Côte d'Ivoire on other hand provides an example of a conflict triggered by economic, social and cultural inequalities. The Northerners who are predominantly Muslims were aggrieved by lack of recognition of their religion and the barring of one of their own from contesting for the presidency (Stewart, 2010).
Multi-party politics has been introduced in many countries as a way of reforming and improving governance. The increased political competitiveness has however provoked animosity between communities. Communities with a huge number of voters have an advantage of minority groups. The minority group ends up being politically marginalized and a possibility of conflict is real. The situation has given rise to power-sharing arrangements in some countries after a violent confrontation prompted by multi-party elections. Addressing all the existing horizontal inequalities among the ethnic groups is important both in countries where violent conflicts have occurred and in potentially volatile regions.
Three categories of approaches have been identified to address the social inequalities namely the direct, indirect and integrationist approaches. Direct approaches advocate for affirmative action where previously marginalized groups are given preferences in access to education, political representation, and employment. The approach, however, may elicit disquiet among communities not benefiting from such policies. To avoid a potential conflict such initiatives should be given a definite time frame within which they can be used to correct the disparity. Indirect approaches involve policies that indirectly promote inclusion of all communities in the economic, social and political systems. The may include devolution of both economic and political decision-making mechanism. Such policies are however slow in taking effects and may be inadequate in addressing all the horizontal inequalities existing. The integrationist approaches involve policies geared towards promoting cohesiveness among different communities by promoting nationhood. However, the perceived cohesiveness may be used to mask the existing horizontal inequalities.
By use of the minority risk group data, several categories of variables will be important while assessing the contribution of horizontal inequality to a conflict. Group characteristics, group conflict behaviors and group status categories of variables can clearly bring out the horizontal inequalities. If the focus is on economic inequalities variables such as, group representation in central government, level of economic grievances and foreign agencies and nongovernment support variable are important. Communities who are consistently receiving support from foreign donors are mostly the marginalized groups that economically discriminated.
The social aspect of the horizontal inequality will be well captured by considering, rebellion, government repression, and level of representation in the political systems. Political inequality can be captured by considering all the social inequality variables. In addition, external political support may indicate a high number of exiled members of the communities due to political persecution. Lastly, cultural inequalities can be well captured by the group characteristics and level of representation within the government (Stewart, 2010).
To properly capture the horizontal inequalities, the distribution of natural resources within a given locality inhabited by a given community is very important. Utilization of such resources determines a group’s ability to empower themselves economically, politically and socially. Communities living in areas with a valuable resource may have advantages over those in regions without resources.

Stewart, F. (2010). Horizontal inequalities as a cause of conflict, A review of CRISE
Findings (pp 1-7). Oxford: Oxford University. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality Assignment”, n.d.)
Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality Assignment. Retrieved from
(Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality Assignment)
Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality Assignment.
“Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality Assignment”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality

Horizontal Violence in Nursing

...and to the IRB To the Hospital Manager/IRB From Rita Marakovitz Dear Sir/Madam, Re: Request for Permission to undertake a research on “the link between horizontal violence and retention in nursing practice” at Hospital X I am Rita Marakovitz, a researcher at South University, School of Nursing. I am formally requesting for permission to carry out research investigating whether there is a link between horizontal violence among nurses and hospital nurse retention. Previous studies into the area indicate that the issue is of grave consequences to the healthcare industry if present hence the need to generate more insightful information through this study. It involves minimal risk and it has...
13 Pages(3250 words)Essay

Inequality the government. The fact that the document was not signed might be taken as the government’s public acceptance of racial discrimination and inequality within its country as the Aboriginal people tend to be considered a racial minority. In order to show their disapproval, representative of the tribes and activists gathered together in a public forum where they spoke about the extreme poverty experienced by the Aboriginal people in Canada(Elmer, 2008) The fact that the Vancouver Olympic games were costing over a billion dollars was extremely upsetting as so many of the native people lived in relative poverty every single day (Elmer, 2008). The fact that the Canadian government placed so much money into...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Horizontal Occupational Gender Segregation

...? Horizontal Occupational Gender Segregation Horizontal occupational segregation refers to the concentration of similar group people in one place or job mainly on the basis of gender or race or some defined characteristics. This kind of segregation is caused by gender and racial differences mainly due to the traditional notions which is carried forward in the work place and a person’s capability is judged on prejudices. Horizontal Occupational Gender Segregation is particularly existent in jobs or work where men are considered superior to women. In this paper, we shall discuss occupational segregation between men and women and the reason behind this kind of segregation (Blackburn). There...
1 Pages(250 words)Term Paper

Vertical and Horizontal Integration

...? Vertical and horizontal integration Task: Vertical and horizontal integration Introduction Companies, especially in the technology industry, are continuously reorganizing and restructuring. This is in order to keep their relevance in a field that HP’s CEO cites as ruthless (Idea 2011). The technology industry has continuous consumer shifts, new inventions, and these present risks for redundancy. Companies that manufacture hardware in previous years are now acquiring the production of software. Companies that only dealt with software are acquiring hardware production facilities in a bid to stay afloat; this occurred in the case of HP and Google. HP has been, since its inception,...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Horizontal Bullying in Nursing

...and the physical heath of the nursing staff which is causing problems on organizational as well as individual level. References Cleary, M., Hunt, G. E., & Horsfall, J. (April 01, 2010). Identifying and addressing bullying in nursing. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 31, 5, 331-335. Ferns, T., & Meerabeau, E. (December 01, 2009). Reporting behaviours of nursing students who have experienced verbal abuse. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65, 12, 2678-2688. Hajizadeh, M., Connelly, L. B., & Butler, J. R. G. (December 01, 2012). Health policy and horizontal inequities of health-care utilization in Australia: 1983-2005. Applied Economics Letters, 19, 18, 1765-1775. Hutchinson, M., Vickers, M. H., Wilkes, L., &...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Macroeconomic policies, government attitudes towards Inequality

...? Macroeconomic Policies, Government Attitudes towards Inequality Macroeconomic Policies, Government Attitudes towards Inequality Answer 1 Effects of Inequalities on the Economic Growth Inequality badly affects the economic growth because due to this there arises different sever problems those affect the growth level. Like due to inequality in the wages or income of the workers many people cannot gain the all opportunities of the life so overall standard of living of society decline. The other point is about the riskiness of jobs, due to inequality the risk of getting good jobs arises in the societies its mean the loss of...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Social Mobility. What Is A Social Mobility And Why Isn't There More Of It in the United Kingdom is known to punish severely individuals who seek career breaks regardless of the reasons. Women often fall victims to this hostility when they take breaks to care for their families and later seek to re-enter the market in the same position (Boyle and Halfacree 1999, p.24). This trend serves to enhance downward social mobility in some households especially after having children. Notably, ethnicity is indicated to play a role in the social mobility in the UK owing to existing inequalities. As such, the level of occupational mobility experience in the country among non-white minorities is significantly low as opposed to the majority whites. This is in spite of having proper and...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay


...Minorities Here are thoughts of some philosophers, and famous men: "It is necessary to treat women as object for the pleasure of the noble half of humanity" SADE "The man must be educated for war and the woman for the relaxation of the warrior" "An intelligent man must regard the woman as a property, a property that is necessary to control, a being made for the domesticity and who doesn't reach his perfection that in the subordinate position " NIETZSCHE "The desire to succeed for a woman is a neurosis, the result of a complex of castration of which she will not cure that by a total acceptance of her passive destiny" SIGMUND FREUD "The woman is an animal with long hair and short ideas" SCHOPENHAUER ...
5 Pages(1250 words)Case Study

Horizontal Drilling

...Horizontal Drilling The world currently faces the most dangerous energy shortages ever, the oil, gas and coal reserves that have developed on the upper layers of the earth's crust are now exhausting, therefore now experts have developed newer and more advanced techniques for the extraction of these energy sources that are deeper in the earth. Horizontal drilling is one of these techniques. Under this technique a well is dug, a vertical or inclined well drilled that extends from expands to a subsurface point that is just above the source of the gas or oil deposit, from a surface where the digging of this well begins this source of the oil or gas reserve is referred to as the "kick off" point, then at the...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Horizontal Profile of Cotton

...Horizontal Profile of Cotton of Affiliation Horizontal Profile of Cotton I. Introduction A cotton product does not irritate the skin. It is preferred for underwear and other clothes worn closely to the body. Cotton blends easily with other garments and is adaptable. It blends with Lycra and polyester synthetics. The cotton fabrics are easy to dye due to their white color and absorption property. It is imperative to note that, a cotton product has a very high absorption rate with the capacity to hold twenty-seven times of the water weight. Cotton is strong when wet. The physical attributes of cotton make it the preferred option for personal and medical hygiene products such as swabs and bandages. Sellers...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic Minorities At Risk And Horizontal Inequality for FREE!

Contact Us