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country was changing. Radical restructuring of the economy has become an objective necessity “since the 1970s when they started shifting to a postindustrial service-based economic structure (in part as a reaction to earlier oil price shocks in the 1970s).” (Winters and Yusuf 150).
Beginning late in 1978, the reform was fully developed after the XII Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (1982) and strengthened its position as a result of the decisions of the XIV Congress (1992). Important milestones were the XIII Congress (1987), which gave a detailed interpretation of the initial stage of socialism theory and the XIV Congress, which decided that the reform is to create a socialist market economic system with Chinese specifics.
The main objective in the domestic politics of China became the recovery of productive forces through a set of market type economic reforms. Strategically far-sighted was the decision of the Chinese leaders about gradual implementation of reforms, taking into account national specifics, according to folk wisdom - Crossing the River by Feeling for Stones. In 1979 – 1983, the interim target of the reform was to complement the command economy, which was still predominant, with market regulations under state control. Practice of the transformations’ start-up phase included expansion of enterprises’ economic independence, creation of special economic zones, recovery of individual and collective structures in the economy, the first attempts to introduce market principles in pricing and sales of engineering products and household goods which had no ratios. The biggest breakthrough was the elimination of the former ineffective system of rural people’s communes.
The new economic model included the following: 1) complete economic independence of enterprises; 2) replacement of directive planning by guiding; 3) free, under state regulatory functions, buy and sell of consumer goods and means of production; 4) creation of the
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All these impressions are not wrong; China has been a symbol of centeredness for centuries largely because of the Westerns’ translation of china’s name for itself Zhongguo, as ‘Middle Kingdom’ or ‘The centre of the world’ (Elegant 1968). Unaware of the western countries, China gave itself this name thinking that it was the centre of civilization.
This view was not arrived at by malevolent outsiders but by the Chinese government. The question of whether the expected change would be one that is abrupt or smooth, can be answered from the perspective that it would mainly be dependent on both the global and China’s future growth.
Chinese media has been actively participating in combining democracy with nationalism but still it remains unable to bridge the gap between the two, the best examples of its failure in bringing democracy is the incident of Tiananmen Square Protest, which we would discuss later.
Laozi believed in an amorphous and pervasive nature in which he differentiated between nature in its primitive form, and as it is named by people. Thus, according to Laozi, the beginning of Heaven and Earth can be described as nameless
One had to be very cautious about his or her health. It is against this background that traditional medicine came into the picture. There were two distinct elements that determined an individual’s health status. One of such was that the body had
step, and then gradually price controls were eased, fiscal policies were removed from centralized control, government-owned concerns gained more freedom, the banking sector was created too with more freedom, and many other reforms were instituted with the objective of making
This is done so through the policy revisiting in form of re balancing the ties and accepting Chinese presence and strength in that region. United States of America in parallel aims at expanding its reach to the other Asian states in the Asian