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But in those days it resided unsteadily up on the monarch. 17th century witnessed a drastic change as the parliament encroach the authority of the monarch. Religious disparities added the intensity of the dispute and the final result was the civil war. But there were persons who had the opinion that sovereignty is not vested in the parliament alone. For example, Thomas Hobbes opined that sovereignty is not vested in parliament but in the monarch. He advocates that as the monarch offered security to his subjects through his laws they obeyed him obedience. In his own words, “life is solitary poor nasty brutish and short” so the protection and stability which a strong monarchy provided was a real advantage” (The Individual and the State, n. d.). Later parliament gathered strength in the 18th century and sovereignty shifted from monarch to parliament both in theory and practice. Sovereignty is the dominant feature of a political institution. Regarding Great Britain, parliamentary sovereignty is considered as the most fundamental element of its constitution. It is the key stone of the law of its constitution. The parliament is so powerful that it can enact or repeal any law and the courts have no authority to judge statutes invalid for violating either moral or legal principles of any kind. As a result of it there are no fundamental constitutional laws that the parliament is unable to alter.
When discussing the parliamentary sovereignty, there arises a dispute concerning the law of the country. As a nation has both common law and statute law, the relation between the two has always been a subject of debate. The legislative law has got a supremacy over the common law sometimes to an extent the statute law can legitimately be governed by the common law principles. However, the statute law is superior to the common law as there is the mainstream notion that the parliament can endorse statutes that supersede any part of the
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The doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty is entrenched within the British constitution as essential in the operation of the separation of powers and the leading decision in R v Jordan highlighted the point that the judiciary was bound by Parliament and could not challenge Parliamentary authority when interpreting and applying legislation.
But with the passage of time things changed as we witnessed the era of renaissance, marked by the progress and development of man from an animal to a social animal. Though the times have changed but still, the struggle continued. Indeed the subjects changed, the barriers transformed and the roles in the society revolutionized but still man kept on striving for freedom and independence.
In the initial stages of democracy in Britain, liberty was at grave risk due to monarchical power.1 As a consequence of the doctrine of Parliamentary Sovereignty, the Parliament was empowered to enact or rescind any law whatsoever.
It was in the fifteenth century that Henry V placed the two houses on the same footing, with the House of Commons representing the general citizenry while the House of Lords represented the nobility. However, it was in 1689, when with the passing of the Bill of Rights it was assured that the Parliament not only had a supremacy over the Crown but was also vested with the power and the authority to legislate and abolish laws.
Some of the disasters occur because of human error while others occur due to unpreventable natural catastrophes. Disasters due to human faults caused by inadvertently ignited fires, environmental pollution and outbreak of diseases due to negligence and poor hygiene are often devastating but avoidable.
Therefore the latter limits to Parliamentary powers are limitations that Parliament voluntarily accepted in much the same manner as it accepted the limitations of Parliamentary sovereignty imposed by treaty obligations when joining the EU.
For Professor Dicey, the author of the most popular and authoritative work on the British constitutional law, the parliamentary sovereignty was 'the dominant characteristics of our political institutions' and meant, that according to the constitutional system of Great Britain
The Treaty on European Union (Maastricht) 1992 involved the creation of the European Union. UK incorporated of the EC law into domestic law by European Communities Act 1972. By virtue of ss .2 (1), 2(2), and 2(4) EC law was directly incorporated.1
Art. 221 provide that the Court of Justice will consist of fifteen judges.
The mode in which countries enter global markets includes selected exporting, systematic approach, broad business activities just to mention but a few. These firms normally employ different strategies to strengthen the presence in the foreign market. Jonson, Whittington, and Scholes assert that strategy usually begins with an assessment of the firm.