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North American civilizations - Term Paper Example

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The writer of this paper states that the significant elements of Adena culture are mounds which are earthen structures used as their gathering sites and build at an isolated place from domestic living, shamanism which is a particular kind of art motif, stone tablets, and pottery…
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North American civilizations
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Dates and Location of Adena and Hopewell Tradition
Hopewell culture flourished along the riverside of the north-eastern and mid-western United States and the date of origination of the culture was approximately in between 200BCE to 500CE
Adena Culture is more popularly known as pre-Columbian Native American Culture. The period over which this culture flourished was 100BCE to 200BCE which is historically known as the Early Woodland Period. The Adena Culture occupied a large piece of land that includes the area of Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, West Virginal and some portions of New York and Pennsylvania.

Significant Elements of Adena and Hopewell Cultures. Origin and date of Mississippi tradition
 Maize-based agriculture was also an important attribute of the period and it supported a large population and craft specialization.

The earthwork of the Mississippian culture was significant consisting of pyramid mounds or platform mounds and was generally square, rectangular and sometimes circular in shape. Domestic houses, temples or burial buildings were constructed on those mounds.
As regards the social ranking of Mississippi culture, there was a development of institutionalized social hierarchy introduced during this period that leads to tremendous social inequality.

Trade was widespread during this period and extended to the far west to the Rockies, in the north till the Great Lakes and to the Gulf of Mexico in the South and to the Atlantic Ocean in the East. The leadership of the Mississippian culture was great and influential. Within the culture, the leadership was hierarchy based and where one major center with Mounds gives clear indication of control and influence over other lesser communities, it also clearly portrays a clear centralization of controlled combination of political or religious power in the hands of single Supreme or few others (US National Park Service, “The Mississippian and Late Prehistoric Period”). Read More
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