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Decision support systems - Article Example

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Overview: On October 8, 2005 a major earthquake, measuring 7.6 struck Asia. The affected areas were of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. However the maximum damage occurred in the Pakistan occupied Kashmir area where at least 73,000 people were dead and millions were rendered homeless…
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Decision support systems
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Download file to see previous pages Almost 2.8 people have been left homeless and 2.3 million are without food.
The direct damage caused by the earthquake is estimated to be about US$2.3 billion. Private housing suffered the maximum damage to the extent of about US$1.03 billion. Of the total housing stock, 84 percent was damaged or destroyed in AJK and 36 percent was damaged or destroyed in NWFP. The transport, education, and agriculture and livestock sectors suffered damages to the extent of US$340 million, US$335 million, and US$218 million, respectively. The cost of reconstruction and restoration of services is estimated to be US$3.5 billion, with housing reconstruction accounting almost UD$1.6 billion.
Reconstruction: In the short term, in addition to addressing the immediate sheltering needs of the affected population, the Government should begin preparing for the longer reconstruction phase. With the onset of winter, reconstruction activities could be reduced to a minimum, particularly in areas above the snowline. During this time, it will be important to undertake the following activities in preparation for reconstruction: (i) determine losses for establishing a baseline and eligibility levels; (ii) undertake seismic and soil investigations, particularly in the most affected areas; (iii) conduct training for safe construction techniques; (iv) disseminate information on available assistance packages and seismic-resistant designs; and (v) establish property rights. The reconstruction effort for permanent housing would predominantly begin in the spring with the provision of hazard-resistant housing for affected population through cash
grants for basic housing assistance, beneficiary identification with compensation levels, and urban planning and development initiatives.
Livelihood: The livelihood support strategy should also seek to rejuvenate economic activity in affected areas through reviving small businesses and trades, livestock and agriculture, and creating employment opportunities for those who are now permanently disabled. A short term option would be providing cash grants to affected families in the form of a monthly support of a recurrent, fixed amount. In addition, cash for work programs may be effective in generating temporary employment for those who are able and willing to work at an appropriate wage.
Agriculture and Livestock: In the medium term support would be needed for replanting fruit trees, rebuilding terraces, replenishment of livestock inventory, rehabilitation of productive infrastructure, and reconstruction of laboratories, offices of extension and research for agriculture, livestock, and irrigation departments. Over the longer term the focus should be on restoring livestock inventories and rehabilitation of terraces and soil conservation infrastructure that have been severely damaged. It is necessary to reestablish the agricultural sector in a sustainable manner through strengthening institutional capacities and providing support services.
Health: The reconstruction ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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