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Modern states in the Middle East are the product of colonial violence. Discuss with reference to two countries in the region - Essay Example

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Modern States in the Middle East are a product of Colonial Violence. Discuss with reference to two countries in the region Name: Institution: Modern States in the Middle East are a product of Colonial Violence. Discuss with reference to two countries in the region The Muslim world did not practice the notion of having territorial states before the era of colonialism (Batatu 1999, p…
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Modern states in the Middle East are the product of colonial violence. Discuss with reference to two countries in the region
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Modern states in the Middle East are the product of colonial violence. Discuss with reference to two countries in the region

Download file to see previous pages... The earlier caliphate and later empires and sultanates were the political factors that unified Muslims before colonialism (Khadduri 1951, p. 11). Colonialism is to blame for the rise in the ‘nation-state’. This is majorly because the colonizers used arbitrary and ad hoc means to create nation-states that were only meant to serve some of their particular interests. Good examples to explain this concept are how Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Jordan were created. Kuwait was created as a result of the interest that the British had in the oil that was present in the Persian Gulf. Lebanon, on the other hand, was carved out of Syria to create a state that was friendly to Arab Christians. In the case of Jordan, it was created as a present to King Abdullah for the assistance he offered to the British during the 1st World War (Khalil 1990, p. 54). The manner in which most of these territories were being re-carved led to increased tensions that were centered on the territorial, linguistic and ethnic differences that existed among Muslims previously. With this in mind, it is correct to point out that modern states in the Middle East are a product of colonial violence. This paper will discuss this notion with a focus on how Iraq and Syria were created as a result of colonial violence. ...
From that day, Iraq was referred to as the “State of Iraq”. The state was to begin operating like an independent state because it was forced to break away from the ties that it had with the rest of the Middle East. The British went ahead and brought King Faisal, who was a Hashemite, to be the ruler of the new established State of Iraq. The French, who were the colonial masters in Syria, had forced Faisal out of Syria (Omissi 1990, p. 2). The British went further and appointed elites from the Sunni Arab people to head major government authorities and ministries. In 1932, Iraq was granted independence by the British after long persuasions by King Faisal. The British, however, did not give up the military bases or the transit rights for their troops. King Faisal died a year later, in 1933, and was succeeded by King Ghazi. During King Ghazi’s time, military coups were the order of the day. He eventually died in 1939 and was succeeded by his underage son (Tripp 2002, p. 28). Syria, on the other hand, has a unique history because some of its sections between 1098 and 1189 AD were under the Germans, Italians, English and French. This was mostly during the crusades that characterized that period. Previously, the region that is today Syria was under army of the Arab Rashidun in 640 AD (Batatu 1999, p. 21). After the period of the crusades, Syria was taken over by the Ottoman Empire in 1516. The French came in later in 1920 and established an independent Kingdom known as the Kingdom of Syria. The Kingdom which did not last for long was under the leadership of Faisal 1 who belonged to the Hashemite family. The Battle of Maysalun is blamed for the short existence of the Kingdom of Syria which only lasted a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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