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Final (African American in Cleveland) - Essay Example

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African American in Cleveland Author’s name Institutional Affiliation Abstract Other than places like Chicago, Cleveland was one location where the African American mass migration from the south relocated to. Cleveland was majorly populated by the whites and few evolving blacks that had risen from the earlier slave class…
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Final Essay (African American in Cleveland)
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Download file to see previous pages Fleming as the first black man in the city council. Edna Hunter on the other hand supported the unmarried black girls through Phillis Wheatley Association. Wealthy Black invested in real estate, a municipal power plant was established, and later Ernest Bohn introduced public housing in Cleveland and rest of United States. Each of these efforts worked to develop the deteriorating city condition and livelihoods. Keyword: African Americans, Blacks, Whites, PWA, Municipal Power Plant, Municipal Lighting System, Thomas, W. Fleming, Politics, Migration, Cleveland’s Reality , Housing and Investment Company, Ernest Bohn, Public Housing, Cleveland Metropolitan Housing Authority Introduction and problem statement: During the end of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century, there was a mass migration of the African American people from the South headed to the North. Majority of these people and their families had been slaves on plantations owned by white men. Over time, life was becoming intolerable and new revolution was setting in. A large number migrated from the rural south into the urban North to look for a better life and opportunities. Cleveland in Ohio was one of the many destinations that the black community populated within few years. However, African Americans arrival in Cleveland was faced by both social and health problems, ranging from disease outbreaks and racism, which was a barrier to accessing health and social facilities. 1. What was PWA? The defenseless, young, and unmarried African American girls faced numerous risks such as the suspicious and unprincipled employers and agencies in Cleveland. Having shared similar difficulties like early age domestic work, Jane Edna hunter founded an association known as ‘Working Girls Home Association’ in 1911, to house and support these girls (Cleveland Historical Team, n.d.). Basically, it was established as an organization to help the unmarried black girls by providing them with affordable housing. Within a few years, the organization increased its capacity of boarding girls and changed its name into Phillis Wheatley Association. As it expanded, it sought to uplift the welfare and efforts of the housed girls and the larger African American community with recreational activities. They learnt and improved their skills through sewing, cooking, sports, handicraft, sports, and dramatization activities among others (“Phillis Wheatley,” n.d). In the modern times, it plays a critical role in Cleveland’s community by providing diverse programs and social services to support the different age groups. All her life, Jane Edna hunter’s venture was in social work, which she committed to support her society. Apart from the challenges in her early life, Edna hunter had acquired education by the time she came to Cleveland. She had a nursing degree from Virginia, had previously acquired domestic work experiences, hired as a private nurse for several Cleveland’s prominent families before she began the foundation, and later studied law and passed the Ohio bar in 1925 (“Jane Edna,” n.d.). The controversy surrounding the association rose from the divided black community and challenges over its financial problems and leadership. Edna hunter faced opposition and critics from one segment of the black community (prosperous black women who had risen from the servant class), which resisted institutional segregation in argument that it promoted racial ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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