During the Cold War, Egypt was famous in facing intense political and economical pressure from Eastern and Western blocs which forced them to fight against Israel and to sign a peace treaty in the 1979…
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The Egyptian chronology events in the 20th Century was mainly based on a dynasties or pharaohs list which were written by the priests called Maneton at the end of the Egyptian period Ptolemaic dynasties. The dates and names offered there is a frame on which the Egyptian chronology was built.
Chronology of Major Events by Moustafa Ahmed
During the 20th Century, different chronology Events by Moustafa Ahmed took place. For example in July 23, 1952, the Egyptian Revolution of the 1952 overturned the monarchy of King Farouk which led to a temporary installation of a new government under Naguib, who was the short-lived president of the revolutionary council. Conversely, in the same year, there were reforms of education such as the installation of a free and compulsory public education for children aged 6 to 12 with co-education at the primary level. In addition, the government as well managed to prioritize the goals of eradicating illiteracy that proved difficult because of lack of facilities in the rural areas (Geoffrey pg.127).
In 1954, there was the rise of Nasser to power. Nasser was known for many years to be very active in getting the British to evacuate the Suez Canal, as well as, suppressing many of the militarist groups such as, the Muslim Brotherhood and establishing a Marxist democratic system in Egypt. In 1955, a reform of implementing family planning clinics were established and in March the same year, the first family planning clinic was opened which helped the state of Egypt to control the population growth within the area (Moustafa, pg.132). In 1956, there was the introduction of Arab Socialism in Egypt. Arab socialism in Egypt greatly led to the sweeping of various social reforms such as suffrage of women and rights of women to start running for political office. It is reported that in this period, there were two decades period of migration which took place into the urban areas such as Cairo, the Alexandria, Suez and Port Said. These areas were famous to have greater economic and educational opportunities. Despite the fact that there was the abolition of separate Shari'ah courts in this period, there was still personal status law which applied hence made the Ulama independence to decrease further (Geoffrey pg.127). Between the 1960s-70, the period was known to be a period of feminism in Egypt. The first wave feminism in Egypt was seen to be comparable to the second wave feminism in the United States of America given that they were associated, but not completely with pressures of the late colonialism and westernization efforts in Egypt where many contemporary and postcolonial leaders were ever critical. In this period, Nawal el Saadawi and Andree Chedid were the most known two people leaders who led in feminists in Egypt, in spite of their influence, the Saadawiis who is said to be still alive continues today. Moustafa Ahmed on the other hand strongly criticized Saadawiis totalizing generalizations in relation to patriarchy, Islam and Egyptian culture. In this era, many changes took place and in 1962, there was the drafting of the National Charter. The drafting of the National Charter mainly claimed for egalitarianism for both men and women; the drafting was then approved formally in 1962 (Moustafa, pg.132). In the 1967, the Egyptian-Israel war (the Yemen war) broke out leading to the defeat of the Egyptians by the Israel. The war increased the influence of Muslim Brotherhood and Islamic
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