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Global Studies - Research Paper Example

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In chapters 8 and 9, A&R argue that extractive institutions are not the only reasons (causes) for countries to become poor and economically underdeveloped. They argue that poverty and underdevelopment is sometimes “imposed” and forced on countries. What do they mean by this?…
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Global Studies
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Global Studies

Download file to see previous pages... The imposition fact is ascertained through the investigation and study of politics in different parts of the world. While bulk of the African continent is characterized by impoverished state of existence, there are exceptions that invoke serious thinking beyond a pre conceived mind set. One of the examples given by James Robinson and Daron Acemoglu is that of Botswana- a minnow state in continent, yet its standing compared to the neighboring region is far more different in terms of the social and economic level of prosperity. Its standing in terms of the per capita income allows it a seat amongst the likes of Costa Rica, Argentina and Russia. The very near neighboring zone comprising of the likes of Congo and other names of destitute depict a sorry tale of affairs in political and economic domain. Hence it is the doing of local brain, internal assessment and administration that determine the overall outlook of a nation in terms of its success or failure. Other similar example presented by the author is that of the Korean Peninsula. The two adjoining neighbors (South Korea and North Korea) enjoy a different level of social standing, prosperity, GDP, per capita income). The demographics of the two countries are as identical as the biological twins, yet it is the policies, maneuvering of the economic and political activity that leads to either prosperity of poverty. The same stands true on the GDP per capita income of the two nations with South Korea ranked at a position of 48 (World bank Indicators) while North Korea at the rock bottom of the list, all to the internal policies and priorities. The former adopted a policy that was people friendly, ushered economic activity, provided freedom on business fronts, incorporated businesses locally and abroad. It is the mindset within that restricts prosperity. Number of events and traces can be extracted from the era of Industrial revolution. Industrial revolution was one event in the modern history that significantly changed the outlook of businesses, economy and countries standing among others. However despite the effective presence of such a vibrant force of industrial revolution certain societies failed to attain the goals and fruit from the potential of industrial revolution. One of the country that stands at the top of this list is Russia. Driven by a Tsarist ruler, Peter The Great, the fear of people’s empowerment led to the distancing of technology, advancements from people. The ruling elite feared that the weapon of progress and prosperity via Industrial revolution would give people more power to act, think and respond accordingly. His power, authority, resources, brainstorming, think tank, all were vested around the strengthening of the political grip rather than cashing in on the valuable gem that had been gifted to the entire Europe in form of industrial revolution. Hence the maintenance of status quo demanded keeping the effective tool of industrial revolution from the people. The decay process was not just limited to internal hatchery of unjust acts, rather the process of stagnation, isolation and exploitation was accomplished and aided by the external force in the form of Colonial powers intrusion into different societies. The colonial trends resulted in a visible gulf between the locals and the usurpers who had forcefully handicapped the culture and society of the locals therein. Adam Smith has invested his thoughts and research in determining the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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