The Cold War involved decades of distrust and suspicion culminating into indirect wars by two superpowers: the United States and the U.S.S.R or Soviet Union. It lasted from 1945 to 1991 and left many people especially soldiers from the two world powers dead and their economies destroyed…
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The most affected areas were the European countries although later the war extended to Asia, Middle East and Third World countries as the two nations struggled for dominance. The war was characterized by arms race and space race with an imminent danger of a nuclear war erupting. However, the question that needs answering is; who was responsible for the war? Traditionalists blame the U.S.S.R; the revisionists blame the U.S while the post-revisionists believe both were to blame. This paper will argue that the U.S.S.R was solely to blame for the start of the cold war due to its expansionist motives and the need to spread communism to the whole world. Although the US and U.S.S.R were both isolationists (remained neutral) in the two world wars, it was clear that the two were mutual antagonists. The US was a strong advocate of the capitalist system and hoped that all nations would embrace democracy while the U.S.S.R was a strong critic of the capitalist system and an advocate of communism. The Soviet wanted to convert the world into communism and abolish capitalism which was viewed as exploitative. Furthermore, the attempt by the US to aid anti-communist Russian forces in the 1918-1919 revolution was not forgotten. However, when German invaded Soviet Union in 1941 an alliance was formed between both powers whereby the Soviet Union was to help US against the Japanese after conclusion of the Nazi-Soviet war. According to Mooney, “Despite these mutual antagonisms, President Roosevelt extended Lend-Lease aid to the Soviets in November 1941 and initiated the wartime partnership between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S that endured until the war’s successful conclusion” (165). Stalin was not genuine in his dealings according to William Bullitt an advisor to the president. The first signs came when Soviet insisted on instituting a provisional government in Poland referred as the Lublin Committee and refused the Poland government in-exile which was operating in London. The Soviets were also advantaged by the Moscow agreement whereby Churchill and Stalin agreed to formula for division of post-war South Eastern Europe spheres (75% for Britain and 25% for U.S.S.R). This enabled U.S.S.R to dominate most of Eastern Europe and advance its cause. Another meeting for Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin was held in Yalta in 1945 whereby they agreed to form an international peace organization and re-arrange post-war map of Europe. As such, the United Nations (UN) and the UN Security Council were formed. However, the Soviet Union was against this Security Council as it refused to acknowledge the communist government of China. According to the Yalta agreement, each power was to control its ‘zone of occupation’ after the war in Germany but Berlin City was to be divided among the four nations. The Americans condemned the agreement and blamed Roosevelt and Churchill for giving up Eastern Europe to the Soviets. However, Robert Dalleck of Boston University states that, “this idea that Roosevelt and Churchill gave away Eastern Europe to the soviets is nonsense.”(60 years later debating Yalta). The Big three also made a Declaration on Liberated Europe which mandated the superpowers with the role of supporting the shattered nations to rebuild themselves and also create democratic institutions of their own choice. This meant the nations were free to hold elections and decide on the form of government they wished to institute and which is responsive to people’s will. The superpowers could not interfere with democratic processes of those nations. However, the Soviet Union defied this rule and went ahead to establish a communist government in Romania. The Soviet Union was
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U.S Efforts to Win the Cold War
Both camps demonstrated concerted efforts to win the cold war by use different leadership, military, economic, and collaborative techniques with the aim of outwitting the others in the cold war. However, there was not physical military contact between the two camps.
U.S and Soviet Union. This implies that Kennedy had quite a challenging role to play in this context, especially with regard to the foreign policy. During his time as President, Kennedy had to face many intense situations where the world was on the verge of another world war, but owing much to the diplomatic skills of Kennedy, the situation was taken control of and issue was resolved (Reeves 1993).
Neither did President Reagan, nor his government plan nor build the Reagan doctrine but was used by his opponents to explain his foreign nature of the law to govern countries worldwide. The main aim of the doctrine was to bring down the foundation of the Marxist administration.
The overall objective of the U.S foreign policy was to stop communism and did not change noticeably from one doctrine to another. Only the costs and the intensity changed. Although a number of doctrines were articulated, they are just variations on the prime “containment” policy or the Truman Doctrine.
According to the writings by Heiko (2010), a presidential doctrine is described as a specific policy, principle, or position that is adhered to and promoted by a President during his/ her term in office. As for Hunt (2009), he described presidential doctrine as a set of principles that are presented for acceptance or belief by a seating President.
Kennedy during the cold war that aspired to contain the spread of communism through a concerted policy of containment and the enunciation of efforts to shrink the communist influence in the Western Hemisphere are popularly known as the Kennedy doctrine or the containment doctrine (Bose, 1998, p.
It was with this understanding of this scenario that President Truman of USA and his experts identified that the US had to become engaged. And it was from this understanding that the Truman Doctrine was made. So, in 1947 President Truman released a Presidential pronouncement presenting immediate cost-effective and army aid to Greece, experienced by Communist insurrection, and to Turkey, under stress from Communist development in the Mediterranean Sea and beyond and beyond position.
In addition to this, he also played a major role in several foreign policies which made him a bit controversial (Kennedy & Sedgwick, 2006). It was common knowledge that Kennedy did not support communism. For this reason, he permitted the CIA to invade Cuba (Presidentprofiles.com, 2013).
It is vital to mote that the globe was also experiencing conflicts on every bend as nuclear terrors were threatening from numerous states. As the president of USA, Nixon had the task to make sure world tranquility and counteract the nuclear threat.
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