28 October 2013 The Different Factors and Effects of Air Pollution Policies between China and the UK Introduction Air pollution means different things to different people. Some view it as the cause of reduced visibility for air traffic and automobiles, while others as the cause of respiratory diseases, and damaged vegetation (Agarwal 6)…
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According to Gurjar, Molina and Ojha, air polluting emissions “occur at many stages in the life cycles of products and services, that is, from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal” (1). After being released, the emissions go through different chemical and physical changes leading to a variety of impacts on the environment and health of living things. In recent years, air pollution has caused harmful effects to human life. It has been realized that incidences of chronic illnesses have been constantly rising; the incidences and seriousness of acute illnesses have also increased, as well as mortality rates. Together with the health effects institute, Bates and Kennedy assert that “when air pollution began to have a significant deleterious effect on human life , it became necessary to discover and understand the links between emission sources and the air quality deterioration and health effects they cause” (162). Currently, environmental social movement groups such as Greenpeace and Amnesty international are playing a significant role in influencing negotiations over environmental protection and management of oceans, the ozone layer, and nuclear deployments. In addition to that, they aid in enforcing national compliance with international mandates (Goodwin and Jasper 227). Scientist’s currently consider climate change, which is caused by air pollution as one of the most serious problems the world faces. Furthermore, the entire globe is also faced by the looming grave threat of global warming, which is a serious environmental security issue. In fact, climate change has a major impact on all aspects of human social and economic life (Yu 37). China’s Environmental History The environmental history of China is quite unique compared to that of other nations. Apart from being “one of the largest and most climatically diverse countries on the planet” (Leibo 52), its population has been historically larger than that of other societies around the world. This “has seen Chinese territory significantly more impacted by human activity than the usual situation elsewhere” (Leibo 52). China was also among the most biologically diverse and affluent places on earth four thousand years ago. Ironically, the very rich biodiversity in China was the main explanation it has supported one-third of the human population at any given time. Initially, the effects of the large population on China’s environment were insignificant. However, with the subsequent spread and development of agriculture and clearance of farmland, the impact of the human population on the environment has become perceptible. The twentieth century has also been marked with the emergence of a consumer culture coupled with rapid industrialization. This has resulted in the rapid ecological degradation in China. Five Year Plan (1953-1957) and the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) The five year (1953-1957) soviet inspired plan was adopted during the Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong’s era (Marks 273). This was due to his dissatisfaction with the Soviet model, because he concluded that it would lead the People’s Republic of China away from realizing their dream of attaining a socialist country. He instead adopted a ‘Maoist’ path, fast industrialization of a socialist China, with rapidly collectivized agriculture spearheading the
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(Wijetilleke & Karunaratne, 1995, p.10) There are many types of air pollution. The common types are acid rain, smog, greenhouse effect and damage in ozone layer. All these types can cause serious damage to human health (What is Air Pollution, n.d.). There are two main air pollutants that cause most damage to human beings and environment.
Likewise, millions of tonnes of wastewaters containing potentially harmful pollutants find their way into water bodies and underground water aquifers. Several bodies have been initiated with the main aim of conserving environment. Some of these bodies in clued NEMA, Centre for Sustainable Development and others.
The direct effect is evident to anyone who has lived in or near a major city. The skies are off-color and ozone warnings are common. People who are susceptible to lung-related issues such as asthma or are elderly are warmed not venture outside on those days.
Outdoor and indoor sources of air pollution have contributed to increases in impurities in the normal air concentration with trends promising more danger in the future. The health analysts have already burst in an outcry against the danger of air pollution and the need to fight against this kind of pollution.
There are different sources of air pollution and all of them can create bad effects on health of all living things. Though it is a fact that there has been an improvement in air quality in the last 20 years, which is the outcome of many steps being taken by different organizations and authorities, but the fact remains that there is lot more to do.
Some of the toxic gases that pollute air include sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon dioxide among other gases. Particulate matter consists of a composite combination of solid, liquid, inorganic and organic materials in
The economic activities of production and consumption carried out in the Peoples Republic of China require the use of energy, and the use of energy affects the environment in the form of pollution which may be air pollution and emission of greenhouse gases, which cause global warming that affects all states in the international system.
In 2009, a study on environmental pollution in China claimed that the economic cost of pollution in the country was about 8% of the country’s gross domestic product. Another study conducted in 2012 failed to quantify the cost of pollution in the
en so severe such that Vanderklippe cites a man from Hebei province who sued the government in February 2014 for the “severity of the fouled air,” this being one of the many other affected citizens. To further show that the situation is severe, the reporter cites the U.S.
Huangpu River splits the city into two. The side west of the river is called Puxi with pudong to the east (Jon, Inge et al,7). Puxi is made up of inner districts such as; The bund, Changing, French concession, Hongkou, Huangpu, Jingán district,
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