The spread of free market capitalism throughout the world today is quite unprecedented and it is no doubt aided by liberalism and the globalization of trade and finance because of only one superpower nation in the world…
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However, America itself is also influenced and even under the same threats that confront other nations resulting from globalisation. It is not a simple issue to deal with, as America finds its ability to manoeuvre paradoxically limited, constrained by global forces outside its control. However, globalisation helps spread the ideals of liberalism of good governance, representative democracy and the benefits of free and fair trade to all peoples. Globalisation must be pursued because it offers the best chance for continued world peace although it has its many drawbacks too, such as the marginalisation of a large proportion of the labour sector. Liberal policies anchored on free and fair trade can spread the benefits of globalisation (a rising tide lifts all boats) but those left out must be given the chance to share in the wealth being created and international security concerns must be addressed as well. Discussion In an article entitled “Globalization, American Power, and International Security,” Kirshner argues globalization is simply not the usual relations between two or more states; it refers to the emergence of unorganised and stateless forces which in turn affect nation-states. His view is that globalisation is not inevitable or irreversible; it is not new also, as the world had seen it centuries before in different forms. Globalisation makes it expensive for states not to embrace it if they will resort to protectionism (Gills, 2013:35). A key consideration is states resisting globalisation will end up marginalised, which makes joining a more compelling and logical option instead. A noteworthy feature of globalisation is the unique role of America in its status as sole superpower from the comparative political perspective (Lijphart, 1971:685); it is the one country able to influence globalisation, with a lot of options available to it (Kirshner, 2008:366). An example is a pre-emptive (preventive) war it pursues against rogue states (Silverstone, 2012:15); another example is globalisation is the result of an American policy of benign permissiveness (Kirshner, 2006:4). America cannot claim complete military or economic hegemony. Globalisation altered the relations between states, their capacities to intervene against market forces, social pressures, and non-state actors, and also created new opportunities for armed conflicts by entrepreneurs of political violence. But this possibility is limited by the reduced gains from any territorial conquest, which is due to the globalisation of finance, trade, and production facilities. It is a disincentive to go to war and instead places a premium on negotiation and cooperation. The existence of global banks, lending institutions, and credit rating firms makes a conventional war unlikely. This article by Kirschner emphasizes globalisation in terms of its security implications, the processes it undergoes, and political context in which it occurs. Admittedly, the United States of America as sole superpower is in an enviable position of dictating globalisation to its own liking, but this has unforeseen consequences. One compelling selling point of globalisation is that a “rising tide will lift all boats” but this is not true in all instances; some nations found themselves at the losing end of globalisation as they cannot cope with both deregulation and privatisation through economic liberalisation. The benefits of globalisation did not accrue to everybody (Bothmer, 2007:133). Even America itself cannot translate its sole superpower status into concrete economic gains or
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The relationship between globalisation and the systems of governance is analysed in the following two articles: a) the article of Cerny (1999), under the title ‘Globalisations and the Erosion of Democracy’ and b) the article of Hirst and Thompson (2002), under the title ‘The Future of Globalisation’; both the above articles focus on the role of globalisation in the systems of governance introduced in countries internationally.
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