Sicily Island is located in the Mediterranean Sea between Italian mainland and North Africa (Seindal 1998). Sicily was ruled by foreign invaders that included Spanish, French, Romans and Phoenicians. …
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Cosa Nostra (Mafia) criminal syndicate emerged in mid 19th century and all cosca aimed at controlling a particular territory (Blok 2001). In 1870s, Romans officials invited Sicilian Mafia clans to help in fighting dangerous independent criminal organisations and protect the land owners (Blok 2001). The Mafia and state had entered in to partnership that allowed the Cosa Nostra to perform the functions that state could inefficiently perform. Factors that contributed to struggle against Sicilian Mafia The mafia and state enjoyed cordial relationships with the Mafia without any disruptions for several years. However, the relationships started tumbling in 1960s after Mafia acquired wealth and threatened the balance of power between the state and Mafia (Blok 2001). Accordingly, the methods of Mafia in acquiring power changed to threatening, extortion and criminal activities thus threatening the State power (Blok 2001). Mafia acquired considerable financial resources through ensuring close working ties with Christian Democratic Party and obtaining guarantees on construction contracts (Allum and Renate2003). In recognition of Mafia’s growing influence, the state decided to withdraw from the relationship with Cosa Nostra (Seindal 1998). Again, Mafia criminal empire expanded in 1970s to become a key network in inter-continent crimes such as money laundering and drug-trafficking. Mafia was initially used to define Sicilian phenomenon, but it is currently used to define any organised criminal organisation especially in Italia (Seindal 1998). In the recent past, Sicilian mafia has expanded to European and international level and has committed other crimes such as money laundering and drug trafficking in countries like Middle East, Latin-America and Switzerland. According to Italian anti-Mafia law of 1982, mafia organisations use intimidation powers and have organised criminal structure that plan its criminal activities. Sicilian mafia has a long history of corruption, murder and extortion (Blok 2001). In early 1980s, Mafia violence was directed at assassination of judges, prosecutors and political authorities. Corleonesi assisted in instigating the Second Mafia war and led a brutal Luciana Leggio against the state authorities in the ‘First Mafia War’. After the Mafia Trials of 1960s, few individuals were convicted of criminal activities and Mafia resumed back to illicit business activities. Control for family dominance within the Mafia organisation resulted to the Second Mafia wars since Corleonesi believed that some families had benefited more from the illicit drug profits and desired to dominate the Mafia through use of violence. Several Mafia families regrouped and started killing specific state figures such as Colonel Giuseppe Russo and several police chiefs (Seindal 1998). Organisations that struggled against the Sicilian Mafia Magistrates Giovanni and Paolo Borsellino The climax of Mafia brutality highlighted the need of the state to curb the organisations criminal activities and several individuals within the state started fighting against the impunity of Mafia (Scheider and Peter1998). In late 1980s and early 1990s, Sicilian prosecutors like Paolo Borsellino and Giovanni Falcone work unearthed the hierarchical structure of Sicilian Mafia organisations. The two prosecutors asserted that they would
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