Syrian revolution - Research Paper Example

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Name: Course: College: Tutor: Date: Syrian Revolution Syria is located on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea and boarders Iraq to the east, Turkey in the north, Jordan in the south, Palestine from the South East and in the west Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea…
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Download file to see previous pages It also has a complex terrain with a desert, mountains and plain land that caused fragmentation in the socio-cultural diversity. Syria is unique in the history of the world especially due to the inclusion of Lebanon and Palestine in its boundaries. Even though Syria is small in size, it has an immense influence (Hitti 3). In the 1800s, the Ottoman Empire was composed of Syria, Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine. Historically, Syria was initially made up of two separate divisions that are the city and the desert. The city represented a place of wealth and power since it became the route of trading between the East and the West. Syria became a bridge of spreading culture from its neighbors thus becoming loci of civilization and commercial wares (Hitti 4). Civilization in Syria has been continuous and has been largely influenced by the Western culture. In the pre-history Syria, there was wheat plantation, copper was discovered and there was the emergence of pottery. These developments brought about changes in the pattern of life. The Agrarian Revolution started and people began to live a more settled life in small villages and towns (Hitti 6). The surface occupied by the desert is 10% but it became an agrarian society. Agriculture flourished when the state provided security and irrigation. Syria was succeeded by military empires with no sovereign ruling class. One of the greatest empires was the Ottoman (1516-1918) which was headed by a religious sultan. Land was owned by the state and the people were seen as flocks that were to be protected and swindled to sustain the ruling class. Islam was the key unifying creed of the state which ensured that there was allegiance to the state, 90% of the people in Syria were Muslims. Ottoman Empire enhanced bigger markets, improved security and the protection of the peasants against prospective landlords’ thus stimulating trade and industry growth. With the fall of the Ottoman empire after the World War 1, Arabic provided an element of an alternative identity (Seale 4-7). Until 19th century the state owned most of the land hence there was no emergence of estate class, resulting to agricultural decline. Due to the decline in the Syrian economy in the 18th century the state became vulnerable to the Western power (Seale 7-10). The European commercial treaties did not protect the Syrian textile industries. The Europeans who had interest in Syria encouraged the intensification of cash crops production. This created a class of middlemen and money lenders mostly dominated by the minority group- the Christians. Commercial agriculture and private ownership did not stimulated agriculture revolution. The French rule, did not go beyond trade and infrastructure. In 1921-1946, Syrian people revolted against their colonizers until they got their independence in 1946. Thus, the early capitalist penetration stimulated a reliant, lopsided and partial development in Syria. It resulted to a modern state with a patrimonial culture and a dependent economy. Agrarian emergency, class conflict and the drastic change in the army further weakened the frail Syria. The country has emerged through the patriotism which made the country become the heartbeat of the Arabian nationalism. Arab unity and Anticolonialism came about due to the Ba’th party which brought a corrupt political order that resulted to backwardness in political, economical and social structures (Seale 39).The party experienced many weaknesses resulting to the radical change in the country’ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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