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Hobbes - Essay Example

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Morgan: Putting Moral and Philosophical into a Scientific Basis and Contribution towards Establishment of Civic Peace and Motivating Mankind in Fulfilling their Civic Duties. Philosophy and science are generally regarded as two subjects entirely different from each…
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Download file to see previous pages... Thus, in his book, Morgan had tried to trace moral and political philosophy within realm of science and its numerous branches. He had also tried to establish civic peace as a way to direct mankind to fulfill their individual civic duties. To delineate these, Morgan has illustrated lifestyles and works of some of the greatest philosophers, sociologists, mathematics and scientists like- Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, etc. Through some selective excerpts of their works, Morgan has tried to establish his goal. Moreover, he has also attempted to motivate citizens in performing their civic duties by analyzing the aspects which makes thought and action of one individual different from another. Once goodness of soul is achieved, citizens will be able to establish civic peace in their societies (Matthews,. 4-27). History Philosophy and science were interrelated from the very beginning, so much so that philosophical ideas developed during seventeenth century has played a huge role in development of science and technology of modern times (Matthews,.1). It was during the beginning of seventeenth century that contradictory views of Plato and Aristotle were noticed by the modern world. At that time, philosophies theories and ideas were re-modeled due to two important contemporary movements- the European Renaissance and Scientific Revolution, with the latter supporting medieval thinking patterns of Plato. However, aspects of Aristotle’s views had more to offer regarding “empiricism, essentialism, naturalism and teleology” (Matthews, 5). Added to these, Aristotle’s thinking had directly influenced thinking of some of the greatest geniuses like Galileo, Newton, etc. who in turn contributed a lot to modern philosophy. The fact that science and philosophy are interrelated is proved again and again. For instance, the proposition that the stars do not twinkle because they are near or because the stars are so near that they do not twinkle. When there is no conversion of the middle term with more relative non- explanatory term, or at times when the middle term is present outside, the proposition is proved by logic but the reason remains unexplained (Matthews, 31-32). Solution to this unexplained reason can be traced with help of different branches of science, like- optics can be related to geometry, mechanics to solid geometry, harmonics can be related to arithmetic and watching stars and comets could be linked to astronomy. This is what Morgan had tried to establish in his book. Putting moral and political philosophy on a scientific basis Appropriate upbringing is required for making good citizens. For this reason, people must learn to abstain from pleasure and pain generated by every single action. The same hypothesis is supported by medical treatments- the corrective treatments to be more precise. Thus, science has its own remedies for pleasures and pains as consequence of any action generated by excess of virtues. Virtue is a part of moral philosophy which pursues people to avoid anything that is wrong. The difficulty to fight pleasure makes both craft and virtue more challenging. This theory holds true for political science also (Morgan, 267). ‘Knowledge’ exists in two forms, namely of “fact” and of “consequence of one affirmation to another”. While the former one relies on individual’s sense and memory, the latter strictly relies on science. Philosophy and logic differs from science in the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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