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European History between 1920 - 1946, Hitler's influence, Italian or Russian fasism/totaliatarianism - Essay Example

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Name Class Date Fascism: Mussolini and a Defiance of Democracy Most political systems have definitions, but are generally still vague as they are interpreted by various people involved in political discussions. Classism is often one of the cornerstones to defining political systems as the elite work towards oppressing the lower classes to increase their wealth…
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European History between 1920 - 1946, Hitlers influence, Italian or Russian fasism/totaliatarianism
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"European History between 1920 - 1946, Hitler's influence, Italian or Russian fasism/totaliatarianism"

Download file to see previous pages Fascism asserts that the state is the most important factor in government and that devotion to a strong leader, an ethnocentric outlook, and support of the nation above all other considerations is the primary ideology that should be followed. The term ultra-nationalism is often associated with Fascism (Payne 5). Mann writes that “Ideological power derives from the human need to find ultimate meaning, to share norms, values, and rituals that seem to make sense of the world and that reinforce social cooperation” (78). In the aftermath of World War I stabilizing the economy and the lives of the people in Europe became difficult and the people in the various nations were seeking strong leaders. Borejsza, Ziemer, and Hulas discuss Italian Fascism as a form of National Socialism. When in 1870 the Italian unification took place, a statesman of the time said “We have made Italy, now we must make Italians” solidifying the need to create a national identity (22). The new regime was a constitutional monarchy under King Victor Emmanuelle II and this lasted through his descendents until Benito Mussolini conducted the March on Rome in 1922 where he seized power. The rise of Fascism in Italy was defined by its radical nationalism as it fell under Mussolini. Fascism was a phenomenon that rose after WWI and when Mussolini took power by forcing the King Emmanuelle III to resign his Fascist Party had already taken control in the government (Knight 28). Knight writes that “Where liberalism believed in the rights of the individual and the power of reason and science to bring about progress, the new thinkers emphasized emotion, instinct, and the primacy of the race or nation” (9). The new regime was defined by the belief that faith in an external force, such as the dictator, could cure the ills of social systems. Mussolini admitted that it was through his will that Fascism was born. As a dictator, his will was the driving force behind the turn in the political tide in Italy in the beginning of the 20th century. Mussolini said “All force is subordination…Remember that in this subordination of all to the will of the leader…Fascism has found its strength yesterday and will find its strength and glory tomorrow” (61). In 1926 Mussolini’s absolute power and his ability to act independent of the other governing bodies was ratified through Law Number100 (Falesca-Zamponi 62). Under Mussolini’s control, he was not only independent of other governing parties, but was also becoming independent from the Fascist Party. Through the marginalization of the Party, they were reduced to daily administration of government which meant Mussolini’s will, but with no power. Fascist culture was never fully developed, meaning that rather than a Fascist based nation Mussolini had ultimate power that could bend to his whims rather than be constructed under a formal system. Through the dictatorship of Mussolini, Fascism was a shadow, but never fully formed. Works Cited Borejsza, Jerzy W, Klaus Ziemer, and Magdalena Hulas. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes in Europe: Legacies and Lessons from the Twentieth Century. New York: Berghahn Books, 2006. Print. Falasca-Zamponi, Simonetta. Fascist Spectacle: The Aesthetics of Power in Mussolini's Italy. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997. Print. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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