Date History and Political Science Realism Realism is a theory of political philosophy that explains international relations in terms of power by believing that politics is governed by objective laws which roots are in human nature…
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The third principle of realism is that interest is defined as power being an objective group that is generally legitimate, although it can change its meaning. The fourth is the knowledge of both moral principles of political action and the tension between moral commands and the requirements of successful political action. Additionally, the fifth principle of realism affirms that moral laws governing the world are different from morals of any nation. Finally, the last principle of realism asserts that there is real distinction between political realism and other realisms. The idea of power is broadly defined and there is no distinction between resources giving state power such as military, and the action of one country exercising power over another. It is something that makes someone have authority over the other due to social differences such as violence and psychological ties. Neo-realism Neo-realism ignores the classical realism concept to explain international politics, but develops a theory that favors structural constraints on agent’s strategies and motivation. It highlights that international disorder is the main cause of disturbance in global politics. Kant’s three “definitive articles” that define what is essential for perpetual peace are: Each state has to have a republican constitution The law of nations shall be founded on federation of free states World citizenship Liberal democracies do not go to war against one another because they feel that war is costly and there are no aggressors. However, liberal democracies go to war against non-liberal states so that the big democracies can consolidate power by invoking nationalist rhetoric and stirring up regional hatred. Marxist Theories The instrumental Marxist theory covers the economic structure due to the feeling that the economy determines everything and promotes the high class. Structural Marxism dwells on the thought that law can be changed by other means and it gives hope to the lower class families that they can improve their status regardless of their current social and economic status. The role of state in Marxist theory is maintenance of the necessary general conditions for the reproduction of the wage labor/capital relation which is the heart of bourgeois societies. Marxist theory differs with idealist and realist theory because it provides a framework of analyzing society and acts as the end goal for all thoughts. It also offers practical solution to social and political problems Theotonio Dos Santos defines dependence as a past circumstance that shapes a particular structure of the world economy, so that it favors some countries to the disadvantage of others and restricts the growth prospect of the minor economics. Bipolarity Factors that limited interstate violence, according to Waltz are, economic interdependence, democratic peace theory, rise of international institutions such as NATO, and the US unipolar moment. Waltz believes that a country cannot just go to war with a nation that does not pose any threat to it. The second reason why countries cannot go to war is economic interdependency when one state enjoys economic monopoly and the other state depends on it. Additionally, the rise of international institutions serves the interest of most powerful nations and the unipolar moment enjoyed by
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