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Question: the period of mid-tenth to mid-eleventh century is often referred to as the Shi'ii century of Islamic history. What - Essay Example

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As early as 632 AD, after Muhammad died and Abu Bakr became the first caliph although there were divisions as to who should succeed Muhammad the Prophet. The term caliph refers to the Muslim Chief of religious and civil Muslim society. Abu Bakr was the father-in-law of Muhammad while Ali ibn Abi Talib was the cousin of Muhammad…
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Question: the period of mid-tenth to mid-eleventh century is often referred to as the Shiii century of Islamic history. What
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Question: the period of mid-tenth to mid-eleventh century is often referred to as the Shi'ii century of Islamic history. What

Download file to see previous pages... The small group belonging to Ali grew to be known as Shiites of the present. The basis for succession in favor of Abu Bakr (means owner of camels) was close companionship with Muhammad. His original name was Abdul Ka’aba (slave of Ka’aba).4 Prophet Muhammad changed Abdul’s name to Abdullah (slave of God) and gave Abdullah the title “Siddiq” (testifier of the truth). Abu Bakr was among the first disciples of Muhammad. He was frequently with Muhammad and was chosen by Muhammad to accompany the Prophet in a “dangerous journey to Medina”.4 1.Bamber Gascoigne, History of the Caliphs. (HistoryWorldNet, 2001 onwards), Retrieved April 3, 2013 from http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=135&HistoryID=aa18>rack=pthc , 1. 2. Joel L. Kraemer, Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival during the Buyid Age. ( USA: BRILL Studies in Islamic Culture Vol. 7 ), 78. 3.Hamid Dabashi, Shiism: A Religion of Protest. (USA: Harvard University Press, 2012), 344-345 4.IISNA, The First Caliph, Abu Bakr (632-634 AC). (Melbourne,Australia: Islamic Information and Network Services of Australasia, 2002 – 2013), Retreived April 3, 2013 from http://www.iisna.com/articles/biographies/the-first-caliph-abu-bakr-632-634-ac/ ) It is said that “Abu Bakr was always by his (Muhammad’s) side in numerous battles, and even sacrificed “his belongings to the Prophet” in order to raise funds to defend Medina.5 On the other hand, Ali was mentioned by Muhammad in his last sermon during the Final Pilgrimage to Mecca, wherein the Prophet told the people to “follow Ali as much as they had followed him”.6 Ali was respected “for his knowledge of the Quran and the events of the Prophet’s life”.7 In fact, he became the counsellor of the first two caliphs, Abu Bakr and his successor, Umar. Ali then called the attention of the 3rd caliph for having violated the teachings of Muhammad and the Quran principles. This led to the assassination of Uthman, the 3rd caliph. Ali was implicated in the death of Uthman right after he assumed the role of 3rd caliph. The clan of Umar (Umayyads) and Uthman vehemently disagreed. At that time, the governor of Syria, Mu’awiya, was said to be powerful and was leader of the Umayyads. Even the wife of Muhammad and daughter of Abu Bakr disagreed with Ali. But Aisha, Muhammad’s child wife when he was 52 years old, was considered a controversial wife because of her young age at the time of marriage. Aisha was between 6 to 9 years old when she became wife of Muhammad. There were earlier adult wives of Prophet Muhammad. Shi’i sects however believed Ali to be the divine descendant of Prophet Muhammad and “the sole legitimate leaders of the Islamic umma (community)”.7 Unfortunately, there was a group of Ali’s followers, the Kharjis, who did not respect Ali’s decision to make peace with Mu’awiya. The Kharjis believed that talking with 5.Ibid. 6.Joel L. Kraemer, Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival during the Buyid Age. ( USA: BRILL Studies in Islamic Culture Vol. 7 ), 78. 7. Matthew Gordon, The Rise of Islam. ( USA:Greenwood Publishing Group, 2005), 105. Mu’awiya would strengthen the Umayyads and weaken followers of Ali, including the Kharjis. It was a member of the Kharjis who assassimated Ali in a mosque at Kufa in 661 AC.8 Thus ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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