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EIC and new ways of waging war - Research Paper Example

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EIC and New Ways of Waging War Introduction March 20, 1602 marked the genesis of a new entity that would later become a key actor in the conflicts and the emergence of a new method of warfare, privateering, along all-important Malay Peninsula. On this day, a group of Dutch merchants and other independent companies, having grown impatient of the Portuguese’s monopoly on the spice trade in the East Indies, and with committed efforts to keep the Imperial merchants from Britain in check, founded the Vereenigde Landsche Ge-OKtroyeerde Compagnie- better known as the Dutch East India Company, or the VOC.1 At the time, the company was led by the Heeren Sewentien, better known as the Lords Seventeen…
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EIC and new ways of waging war

Download file to see previous pages... Grotius the VOC jurist The VOC was formed as a private company whose main aim was to counteract the dominance of Portuguese interests in the East and West Indies region, as well as target Spanish interests in the ongoing conflict between the Dutch and the Spaniards. Grotius was appointed by the VOC Company as an advocate to champion the freedom of navigation and free access to markets that were under the strict control of the Portuguese.3 He conducted a campaign whose main aims were to legitimize the operations of the VOC as a body interested in fighting for free trade, the abolition of monopoly, and freedom of navigation in the East Indies waters; all of which the Portuguese were not willing to accept.4 The primary purpose in founding the VOC was so that it could anchor Dutch interests in the East Indies by moving fast to take advantage of lucrative trade routes that were under threat from British Imperial merchants. ...
ket requirements.5 As a young philosopher, Grotius laid the foundation for a new understanding of international law and Just War Theory that formed the basis for Dutch arguments towards the legality of their operations in the East Indies. For example, in 1609, Grotius anonymously published Mare Liberum, or the “Freedom of the Seas,” which was a way to declare war outside the European continent mainly driven by low profits from the West Indies trade, and increasing competition from the English.6 As the main VOC jurist, Grotius advocated for the legitimization of the actions and operations of the VOC, arguing that they were legal and moral. For example, on the issue of extradition, Grotius argued that all nations had the natural right and duty to either extradite or punish malefactors.7 Moreover, Grotius held that subjects of the United Netherlands had a right to sail and trade in the East Indies.8 This challenged Portuguese, Spanish, and English interests in the East Indies. Mainly, this was argued on the principle that every nation had the right to trade with any nation it pleases.9 Moreover, Grotius’ argued that the Portuguese and Spanish did not have sovereignty over the areas they occupied in the East Indies. Hence to deny the Dutch any trade rights or the rights to passage would be absurd and unjust. This paved the way for increased competition and conflict in the East Indies amongst the European powers. In February 1603, the VOC seized the Portuguese vessel Santa Catarina along the Singapore coast, on the pretext that Portuguese merchants had aggrieved Dutch vessels, and therefore seizing the ship was justified as a form of reparation.10 Grotius argued that the Portuguese had denied the Dutch the natural right of access and trade in Asian markets, that the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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