Byzantium And Islam.
After the fall of Roman Empire, three civilizations begun based on religion - Byzantium and Islam. These two were adaptions of the previous roman system which was based on Christianity. …
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. Byzantium attained its political height through Justinian, who re-conquered the old Western empire parts. Successive attacks from various peoples, including Latin Christians, made Byzantium weak, finally falling to the Ottoman Turks (1454) (Perry, Chase, Jacob, & Jacob, 2008 pg. 29). As the 7th century began, vast territories that extended from Egypt to Syria and across North African territories were under the rule of Byzantine Empire from Constantinople (modern Istanbul), its capital. Critical to the power and wealth of the empire, these southern territories long influenced by the Greco-Roman traditions held Orthodox, Syriac and Coptic, Christians, Jewish communities, among other many religions (Ratliff & Evans, 2012 pg. 36). Great pilgrimage centers engrossed the faithful followers from as far away as Scandinavia in the west and Yemen in the east. Major trade routes extended down the Red Sea to eastward past Jordan to Indian lands in the south, bringing ivories and silks to the imperial territories. Key cities made wealthy by commerce protracted along inland trade routes Constantinople north and along the coastline of Mediterranean sea. Commerce carried ideas and images freely through the region. In the same 7th century, the newly founded faith of Islam began from Medina and Mecca along the Red Sea trade way and reached westward to the Byzantium Empire’s southern provinces. Religious and political authority was conveyed from the long conventional Christian Byzantine to the newly founded Umayyad and well along Abbasid Muslim dynasties. These new powers capitalized on the advantage of existing region traditions in developing their compelling religious and secular visual identities. This exhibition shadows the Byzantine Empire southern provinces artistic traditions from the 7th century to the 9th, as they were changed from being fundamental to the Byzantine tradition and beliefs to being a critical Islamic world part (Ratliff & Evans, 2012 pg. 61). Byzantium preserved key foundations of the Greco-Roman practices and tradition. Under Justinian's order, Byzantine scholars collected and organized Roman law in the Corpus Juris Civilis, which had four parts. Influenced by the Greek historians, Byzantines including Anna Comnena, Procopius, and Michael Psellus offered rational, comprehensible, if not always objective, versions of historical occasions. Byzantine religious philosophers studied Greek philosophy but they subordinated philosophical activity to theology enterprise. Byzantium developed a rich architectural, artistic, and musical tradition influenced by some pre-existing ones. Drawing from Hebrew and Greco-Roman practice and theory, Byzantine musicians formed a tonal system that greatly influenced the Western music course, and Kontakion hymnody derivative of early Christianity models. Byzantine art largely concerned itself with exalting the empire and serving spiritual purposes. The iconoclastic controversy made artists to find new methods of approaching the issue of representing the human nature, but despite that, Byzantine artists never reconnoitered realism in deep as their Western complements did. Ravenna became the focus of much early artistic engagements. Buildings such as Theodoric's church of St. Apollinare, Galla Placidia's mausoleum, and San
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Belief takes many different forms; these forms are called religions. The word “religion” is literally translated from Latin as “connection.” Connection with God. Connection with the Universe. Connection with people around. A lot of different religions existed and exist now.
Almost all places of Europe, at present, show a kind of Roman influence in its base level. The Roman law and culture had flourished deeply in the European countries. It is said, “Romanization in the western provinces raised people’s standard of living as roads and bridges improved, trade increased, and agriculture flourished under the peaceful conditions provided by the army” (The rise of Rome 176).
Moreover, it has unique belief patterns and worship to an exclusive deity that is evident among all the other worldly religions. Introduction The word Islam connotes the willful and total submission to the worship of the god ‘Allah’ (Tamara, 2010). Moreover, the word ‘Islam’ represents peace as it is a natural effect that comes by when one submits to the doctrines of Allah.
After receiving the message from Allah, Mohammed began to pray only secretly and converted his family. However, when Allah commanded Mohammed to preach publically and spread the word of Islam, the people of his town, Mecca, began inciting hatred towards the Muslims, although a few converted (von Sivers, Desnoyers & Stow 300-322).
Way back in the past, the sacrifice offered to show gratitude to God, ask something from God, or ask for pardon to be forgiven, was in the form of animal sacrifice. (Rich, T.R. 1995-2011). Justice, on the other hand, is characterized by impartiality and based on righteousness.
Each tribe worshipped a number of gods and deities. Although the Arab merchants in the cities like Mecca, were prosperous due to the trade from the lands of the east, there was a general discontent among the majority of the poor masses. The later decades of the century saw a change in the fortunes of the Arab world, which was to have a profound effect on the history of human civilization.
ut the city of Byzantium, he makes it clear that though he is using the name of a very human, and very cultured, city, this is no human city he is discussing. For Yeats, Byzantium represented the highest ideals in art, spirituality and knowledge, a kind of heavenly realm in
After, we will move to the future of Islam. Examine if further development of the religion is possible.
The history of Islam is very extensive and we will have to travel through a period of more then 12 centuries to discover the
At first glance, this is a dark age in Europe’s history, full of violence, martyrdom, enslavement and continuous crusades and “holy wars” initiated by both Muslims and Christians. An age of chivalry and all
The Byzantine Empire had initially concurred the parts of Europe and Italy and did not hesitate to reason in the line of expanding their military conquest and authority. The Islam caliphate expanded and
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