Name Professor Course Date Life of the Silk Road (Tang Dynasty): Gender Gender issue in the Tang Dynasty to date bears an intriguing account compared to other numerous dynasties of the then period and afterwards (Ya-chen 75). This was due to the freedom, which the female gender enjoyed especially by those emanating from the affluent backgrounds…
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Consequently, prompting some women start having male concubines, which during then were acceptable and even right. Since, this trend was evident from the empress to the simple in the society, though the latter due to their husbands’ dominion complied with their unions’ precepts. Political arena also included the female gender where in most cases men exhibited approval besides other numerous fields, which even to date men deem they are not womanly (Ya-chen 77). Gender issue in the Tang Dynasty had a liberal stand due to women’s freedom, which this study seeks to expound (Ya-chen 75). The entire society besides accepting the idea of divorce, it also allowed the widows to continue with their sexual life (Ya-chen 75). Hence, an implication that men’s control by then did not have strict rules (Ya-chen 75). This is because women had the courage to request for the termination of their marriages and even remarry, a factor, which the emperor supported. Hence, “four daughters of the first emperor of the Tang Dynasty married twice, and six daughters of the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty married twice” (Ya-chen 75). This exhibited a liberated society whereby both genders despite having their distinct roles, love to them meant a quest for happiness and satisfaction. This is because of the women’s decline to be recipients of exploitative actions especially from their spouses thus; they had the freedom to define themselves besides deciding whom to cohabit (Ya-chen 75). In addition, the two genders in the kingdom where able to assume similar roles especially in the political arena (Ya-chen 77). This was contrary to the bordering dynasties, whereby they devalued the status of a female gender to extend of not having any say regarding the running of their states. Conversely, Tang Dynasty exercised equality especially in the political arena whereby women who exhibited distinguished character became government officers (Ya-chen 77). Besides, these women had the power to decide or even plan about their destinies and what they intended to attain without consulting their husbands, for instance, during Wu Zetian’s reign (Ya-chen 77). This is evident from the then period’s women scholars, for illustration, Song Ruochao who was a female xushi and Yu Xuanji (poet) (Ya-chen 77). Studies contend, “Tang Dynasty is often depicted as a golden age for Chinese women, a period of relative autonomy and power prior to their subjugation under the Neo-Confucianism of the Song Dynasty …” (Lewis 179). Since, its trend entailed excessive interaction of both men and women where the latter who emanated from an affluent background some kept male concubines (Ya-chen 76). This was after women market had shifted from the streets to their households, a trend that was common with divorcees and widows (Lewis 179). However, this freedom yielded to the degrading of the female gender, which later the Buddhism refuted sharply besides emphasizing on widows’ chastity. Because, the former dynasty’s liberty encompassed morals’ degradation coupled with women especially the courtesans sometimes silencing their men while arguing. This is because besides being arrogant, they were also proficient in martial arts; hence, their male counterparts did not dare to challenge them in the public (Ya-chen 77). However, some of the poor courtesans severely suffered especially those who sought
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One of the greatest achievements of the Tang Dynasty was the Silk Road – an ancient 6000-kilometer or 4000-mile-long trading route that linked China to Rome. It was Chang Ch’ien, one of the greatest explorers of China, who initiated silk trade with the Central Asian tribes, thus leading to the creation of the Silk Road (Mon).
The routes, mostly stretching between the East and the West, linked different regions and countries of the ancient as well as the medieval world. Since the term, “Silk Road”, does not refer to any single route of communication, modern historians prefer ‘silk routes’ to ‘silk road’ in order to refer to the interstate or international commercial relation among the countries among countries of the ancient and the medieval world.
The land routes were later supplemented by the sea routes with the invention of sea technology. The area separating the China from the west is not a hospitable place as a majority of the land is occupied by the Taklimakan Desert (Franck 60). The desert is characterized by sand storms, little vegetation and rainfall.
With this concern, Chinese Silk Route is reckoned to be the earliest trade routes, which accelerated its growth from second century BC from Xian to Mediterranean. It covers the difference between the regions of east and
The author states that there were numerous commodities traded during these travels. Caravans moving towards China were loaded with ivory, gold, silver, glass, and precious gems. Even exotic foods, such as, pomegranates and carrots were traded to China. Similarly, China exported jade, bronze, iron, porcelain, and silk.
During the tang period, gradual improvement of the earthenware and stoneware is seen. For many years, continued efforts have been on the way to try to make bodies cleaner, harder and whiter. During this period, the clay bodies were kaolinitic and supplemented with other ingredients that helped them towards vitrification.
The major purpose of this work is to trace Silk Road’s long history, its crucial role in economic, cultural and social aspects and to highlight grounds of this ancient business prosperity.
The Silk Route, a connection of trading roads building bridges between
the influence of ecological factors in the development of culture, facilitating the study of the active interactions between ecological forces and human beings, and the identification of the causes of the stimulation of cultural exchanges and material trade along the Silk Road.
These cultural interactions happened to occur in regions of the Asian continent and other continents such as African continent. The main theme was to connect these regions by linking traders, monks, soldiers, urban dwellers, merchants, and pilgrims from different
The culture of tea and tea drinking ceremony in the society reflects the importance of this perfect beverage, which was created in China. “Being an old and traditional beverage, tea was first grown in China and then spread to other
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