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Midterm - Essay Example

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Author Tutor Course Date Midterm #1 The abolition of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent emergence of the Barbarian kingdoms had no serious effects on the economic activities in Europe. Crouzet notes that 950 was the year when the traditional economy in Europe was created…
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Download file to see previous pages Muslim piracy was also reduced, and economic activities revived along the western Mediterranean coast of the Christians (Crouzet 9-12). In addition, the western and central Europe was free from invasions by the nomads from central Asia that were dangerous to the survival of Europe's economy. Between the years 1236-1242, the Mongols raid of Europe brought destructions to economies in Poland, Hungary, Bohemia, Silesia and most parts of the Balkans. In 1242, the Mongols extended eastwards and conquered China (Crouzet 9-12). The other factor that affected the European economy was the rise of feudalism, which was subsequently followed by feudal anarchy. There were frequent wars among the rivalry feudal leaders in Europe, which caused the destruction of European economy. Between the years 950-970, many fortifications were constructed to enhance the security of kingdoms under feudal leaders. Within the same years, the church contributed a lot to the safety of Europe through their peace movements (Crouzet 9-12). Another factor that was crucial to the development of European economy was the rapid growth of the population since the thirteen century. This was caused by improvements in technology and increased agricultural productivity. The population growth acted as a crucial factor in spurring the commercial and urban revolutions in the 18th centuries. The population increase had considerable influence in Northern Europe. The population growth caused changes in the prices of commodities, which lead to the development of institutions for innovations (Crouzet 9-102). #2 The population of Europe increased tremendously between the years 1000-2000 because the rate fertility was higher than that of mortality. This resulted net population growth, in Europe. Population increased constantly and would only reduce drastically incase of catastrophes such as disease epidemics. The invasions on Europe had also ceased, and security prevailed in most regions of Europe. Also, between the 8th and 14th centuries, European epidemics had decreased and a warm climate prevailed in Europe, particularly the Alps region. The favorable climate improved agriculture activities, which led to better nutrition and improved standards of living (Crouzet 9-12). In the Carolingian times, the western Christendom developed values and a model of its population. In the whole of Europe, polygamy, the use of contraceptives, abortion, desertion of children and infanticide were abolished. The church supported monogamous marriage and enforced strict rules on polygamous marriage. The nuclear family in most nations grew stronger and became dominant with the exception of the Slavic people. The system of monogamous family encouraged acceptance of children and procreation. This system also regulated procreation before marriage. The effects were increased fertility rates and reduced death rates. However, the rate of infanticides and Juvenile mortality remained high though out Europe (Crouzet 9-12). The historical records show that the population in Europe increased from 1.1-1.2 million between years 1066-1086, 3.4-4.5 million people in 1340. However, France, Europe had a population of 15 million people in 950. In 1300, the population in Europe doubled. The population continued to increased but never exploded like that in third world countries in the late 20th century. The population in E ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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