The History and Description of the Pantheon Introduction The Pantheon is among the grand architectural establishments of all time. It is completely bold, original, multilayered in relations and meaning as well as the container of a kind of immanent universality…
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The force of the presence of Pantheon as well as its environmental symbolism often works charismatically upon visitors who experience the beautiful reach of its canopied void while passing through its bronze door into the enclosing rotunda. The extensive and influential architectural effects of the Pantheon upon the subsequent buildings are incontrovertible, and documented widely for the design and various aspects of the architecture (Baker 30). The controversial designer of the architecture, Hadrian, had an in-depth architectural brilliance accompanied with deep interest in architecture. He demonstrated inexplicable impudence and superiority in his architectures. Literature reveals that the conception and design of the Pantheon was original. Notwithstanding the fair amount of data and information on the history of the building, the eventual meaning and impression of the building remains in its intricacy and mystery. The description of the Rome architecture, the Pantheon, is presented with information on its history. The description will cover the interior and exterior descriptions. History of the Pantheon According to MacDonald, the architect of the Rome Pantheon is unidentified. MacDonald states that it is almost certain that Hadrian was not the architect of the Pantheon despite his name being widely suggested as the one. He argues that the construction of the building must have required a thorough going professional to create the drawings and models, calculate the design and construction details and supervise the complex and extracting work as it progressed. Whoever the architect of the Pantheon may have been, the architect stands in relation to the building of Hadrian as Justinian to the Hagia Sophia or Louis XIV to Versailles. Hadrian, the Pantheon as well as the cultural texture of the early second century are all interlinked inextricably. As a result, no doubt exists that Hadrian was the motivating personality behind the conception and design of the Pantheon (MacDonald 12). Hadrian was born in well established colonial family in Roman Spain during the reign of emperor Vespian in 76 A.D. Hadrian was made the emperor upon the death of Trajan who reigned between 98 and 117 A.D. Hadrian reigned between 117 and 138 A.D. The location where the Pantheon was built was earlier occupied by a rectangular sanctuary of similar dedication built by the great minister Agrippa of Augustus, and dedicated around 25 B.C. The building was burnt down twice prior to the accession of Hadrian, and replaced entirely by Hadrian with the current structure. Nevertheless, Hadrian reinstated the original inscriptions of Agrippa, “Marcus Agrippa the son of Lucius, three times consul, built this,” on his new building. This inscription has led to significant confusion. Up-to-date, the Pantheon is uncommonly said to have been constructed during the period of Augustus Caesar. This date is wide off the mark by approximately 150 years because the inscription in bold bronze letters that spreads across the entablature of the great porch is modern (MacDonald 13). The appropriate date of building the Pantheon is approximated to be the first half of the reign of Hadrian. The architecture was not commenced prior to 117 A.D., and was most probably dedicated around 126 A.D. to 128 A.D. During the second century, the Roman brick makers stamped methodologically a
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Thus because of this, we are able to see the influence of the Greeks on the roman art through comparing the two structures. A part from being places of worship the two temples share other common characteristics. However, they also have a number of differences in terms of function, themes and ideology.
The building is circular with a front entrance portico made up of eight large Corinthian columns made of granite. There are another two groups of four behind that are all under pediment. There is a vestibule, rectangular in shape that links the porch to the cupola that is beneath a coffered concrete auditorium.
From this research, it is clear that Ancient Rome was marked with a lot of features, which evidently expressed its early civilization. Most importantly, the civilization was in terms of the culture, traditions, and religion, which were practiced by its citizens. Architectural constructions marked the ancient Roman Empire on a large scale.
The building is a cylindrical drum, 21.5 m (71 ft) in height, containing a hemispherical dome of the same spoke. Google Picture. The Pantheon. Arch. Marcus Agrippa. Rome, Italy. 27 B.C. The entrance is in the form of gable in Corinthian style, earlier accessed by five steps from a porch forecourt beneath the current street level.
This symbolism can be found in the geometry applied to the constructive elements or in the philosophy and religion applied to the interior spaces.
It was built in Rome at the beginning of the Roman Empire and it was originally dedicated to all the gods. As it is written in the portico's frieze ('Made by Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, in his third consulship'), it was originally built by Agrippa during his third consulship, around 27 B.C.
The paper tells that without a pre-understanding of ancient architecture the Parthenon and Pantheon resembles a significant extent due to structure of its pillars in a resembling manner however, Chartres Cathedral is a depiction of gothic architecture which can be identified with ease in its visualization.
The building is the oldest surviving pieces of Byzantine architecture and its beauty lies in its transformation and adaption to suit the needs of its occupants. From the exterior, one would envision Hagia Sophia as only a mosque and when I first encountered the building I believed that Christian elements within the original building would have been completely removed due to the Muslim influence.
According to the research findings, both Greece and Rome were Mediterranean countries. The government of Athens was an oligarchy, which evolved into a democracy. Kings governed Rome in the beginning, then a mixed Republican form of government, and finally emperors. Both the Greek and the Roman economy was based on agriculture.
Among the most influential aspect of the development of Western civilization is the importance it yields to religion. The belief in deities has been a common ground in history that is definitive of its culture. One can perceive this notion of religious belief base on the way of living of the people, their stories, their art and their architecture.
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