The Civil War and Reconstruction The ultimate crisis that United States has to go through was in 1861. The Northern and southern states were unequal in terms of economical, social, and political conditions…
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This irregular establishment separated the North from the South. Southerners were of the opinion that slavery should persist to exist as they needed African-Americans to work on their farms. However, Northerners were industrializing and wanted to restrict slavery or eliminate it. Therefore, the crucial point of this political turmoil was slavery (Randall, 1961). When President Abraham Lincoln became the president of United States in 1860, this racial conflict was on its extreme. Eleven of the Southern States finally break away in 1861 from Federal union. These eleven states sought out to form a self-governing Confederacy of States where slavery would continue. However, the Unionists of North on the other side argued that this separation was unconstitutional. The Northern States were eager to use military so that the Southern States remain in the Union. Southerners were also in a conflict with each other. Those who had slaves favored separation and those who didn’t opposed it. The outcome of this disparity was a bloody and expensive civil war. If all wars of the nation are combined together, so many people were killed in the Civil War (Randall, 1961). There were about twenty one million people in the Northern states in comparison to the nine million people of the Southern States, of whom about three and a half million comprised of slaves. Additionally, Federals of North owned hundred thousand manufacturing plants as compared to the eighteen thousand of the South. Also, northern states comprised of more than seventy percent of the railroads. Also, Unionists had 30 to 1 dominance in production of arms, and a 2-t-1 circumference in accessible manpower, and a huge prevalence of financial and commercial resources. Moreover, the Government of North was functioning with a small but very effective regular navy and army (Randall, 1961). However, the Confederacy was not destined to lose. The armies of Southern States had several benefits such as their military custom was a huge one in United States history and they were fighting from interior lines. Likewise, the huge coastline of 5,600 kilometers was a challenge barrier and the president of Confederate, Jefferson Davis was expecting an important foreign intervention and aid. The soldiers of Confederate were struggling to accomplish a disconnected and sovereign nation called “Southern institution”, the idea of it was establishment of slavery (Bridges, 1962). The North won against the South. The victory of North, in addition to its better numbers, naval and arms forces, and financial and industrial resources, was also a part and parcel of Presidency of Abraham Lincoln who became a leader of war in 1864. He led the soldiers with great valor. Also the triumph of North was a result of Southern failures in materiel, transportation, and political management. The bravery of Confederate soldiers should be highly acknowledged as the tactical and strategic agility of generals such as Lee, Joseph E. Johnson and Jackson should be written down in golden words. Both sides experienced some negligence but personal bravery and huge casualties which both sides faced has surprised many military historians and scholars (Bridges, 1962). When the Civil War ended, a process of Reconstruction began to take place by the Federal Government. The Federal Government wanted peace and tranquility. The Southern soldiers wanted to just go home after asserting their loyalty. The soldiers of General Lee after they surrendered were not even put to prison. Even Johnson’
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