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How to Resolve an Ethnic Conflict- Case Study of Bosnia - Research Paper Example

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Resolving an Ethnic Conflict- Case Study of Bosnia Dustin Ayres Institution Tutor Date Resolving an Ethnic Conflict- Case Study of Bosnia Ethnic conflicts exist in different forms such as cultural, social, and political oppression of the minorities. Powerful communities in a multiethnic society can form cartels in order to control the minorities and deprive them of their share of national resources…
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How to Resolve an Ethnic Conflict- Case Study of Bosnia
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Download file to see previous pages The Serbs were seeking political dominance in Bosnia by eliminating the weak Bosnian Muslims. According to Horowitz (2000), a weak state cannot manage the differing ethnic interests peacefully in order to provide protection to all ethnic groups. The Bosnian conflict was also politically fueled by government and military leaders. Political leaders can have discriminatory inter-ethnic politics and ideologies that favor some ethnic groups (Jesse & Williams, 2011). Serbian leaders such as General Mladic and Radovan Karadzic were the masterminds of the Srebrenica massacre. Serbian political leaders had empowered Serb militias to fight the defenseless Bosnian Muslims. Cultural factors such as propaganda, stereotyping and religious differences also lead to ethnic conflict (Jesse & Williams, 2011). Stereotyping creates tension between ethnic groups and hinders social cohesion (Horowitz, 2000). Bosnia was composed of Muslims and non-Muslims. In 1992, fierce propaganda was spread by Serbs depicting Muslims as extremist fundamentalists. This made Bosnia Serbs support Serbian militia fighting against Bosnia Muslims. Other factors such as economic factors and weak national institutions had little impact among the causes of the Bosnia war. However, these factors still remain valid causes of ethnic conflict among different ethnic groups. Several countries in Africa and Asia experience conflict due to imbalance in economic development and institutions that disregard the law. The Bosnia conflict was ended by the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement in 1995. The peace deal had been brokered by the U.S government. The Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic, Bosnian president Alija Izetbegovic, and Croatian President Franjo Tudjman signed the peace agreement. The United States, Russia, France, Germany, and Britain initiated the peace deal that ended the war in 1995. Sarajevo was made the capital city of Bosnia, and the country was divided into two regions along ethnic lines. The Serbs were given 49 per cent of the country, and the remaining 51 per cent was allocated to the Bosnia Muslims. The deal led to the establishment of a Peace Implementation Council to coordinate reconstruction and development projects. The deal included the deployment of NATO troops in the country for peace keeping. A UN High Representative was appointed to make and enforce the law at the state and entity level. The country conducted national elections that established a government of three presidents. Through the peace agreement, political differences that led to the conflict had been addressed. According to Horowitz (2000), differences in political ideologies and the desire for political dominance lead to ethnic conflict. The peace agreement led to the establishment of a central government that would rule over Bosnia. Each entity also has a state government, police, and the military. The issue of weak institutions that disregard the law and a weak nation or ethnic group was addressed. The weak Bosnia Muslims were given the biggest portion of the country and established a state government and a military force. This gave them an institution that guarantees their security and makes laws that govern the state. The PIC makes decisions that have been implemented by international organizations such as IMF, the World Bank, ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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