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On Democracy - Essay Example

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name: Subject: “The nation of Iraq – with its proud heritage, abundant resources and skilled educated people – is fully capable of moving toward democracy and living in freedom… Success could also begin a new stage for Middle Eastern peace” George W…
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Essay on Democracy
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On Democracy

Download file to see previous pages... This is usually entrenched in the laws of the land. It involves social, cultural and economic conditions that provide free and fair practice of self determination politically. It hails from a Greek word demokratia whose meaning is “rule of the people”. This word can be divided into two. Demos meaning “people” and kratos meaning “power”. Democracy contrasts other forms of government like monarchy and aristocracy /oligarchy. Monarchy is where power is held by one individual while aristocracy is where power is held by a group of people. Contemporary governments tend to have a mixture of all these elements. There are several types of democracy (Lijphart 150-250). The two basic forms of democracy are direct democracy and representative or indirect democracy. In direct democracies, citizens have direct participation in the decision making process within the government. In indirect democracies, citizens elect representatives (Lijphart 200-250). He explains that in modern democracies, the sovereign power is retained by the people while the political power is exercised through the representatives (200-250). He further explains that an electoral democracy government is determined by popular sovereignty (200-300). People in the country determine who will govern them. They do t his by voting. A liberal democracy is one in which both sovereignty and liberties are manifested. The civil society is very active and restraints the government from misusing power. A substantive democracy is a working democracy. Under the representative democracy, we have parliamentary, presidential and constitutional democracy. Parliamentary democracy is a democracy where government is chosen by elected representatives (Lijphart 200-250). Government in this case is checked by the legislative parliament elected by people. The legislature can dismiss the prime minister under this system of government. This happens by passing a vote of no confidence. Presidential system of democracy is where the public elects the president through general elections (Lijphart 200-250). The elections are supposed to be free and fair. The president happens, in these cases, to be both head of state and government (Lijphart 200-300). In this system, there is a clear separation of power. The executive, legislature and judiciary are separate. A semi -presidential system is where power is shared between the e president and the prime minister. A constitutional democracy is a representative democracy whereby the elected representatives exercise the power to make decisions as per the constitution (Lijphart 200-250). It is subject to the rule of law. The constitution emphasizes the need for protection of rights of individuals. A hybrid is a system where representative democracy and direct democracy mingle (Lijphart 100-250). This happens in some states in the United States. What kind of democracy is suitable for the countries that have never enjoyed these rights and freedoms? World scholars doubt the possibility of none democratic countries to build both democratic and stable governments (Davis 13-17). To be specific, Iraq and Afghanistan tend to lack the necessary requirements for establishing and maintaining a stable democracy (Davis 10-17). Davis explains that the absence of these values causes the democratic values not to survive (13-17). When a country becomes exposed to a new form of government, many things have to change. Generally people resist change. To be more specific ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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