Counter Terrorism Strategy and Plans for Japan Terrorism is considered to be a very old threat to established societies, most frequently it emerges out from groups with political agendas like the IRA or individuals whose motives lie in creating violence against the societies in which they live…
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Aum Shinrikyo is an indigenous terrorist group arising in Japan (Hidaeki, 2003). The group also carried out certain marginally successful attacks on the Diet and the Crown Prince’s wedding with botulin toxin and attempted an anthrax attack on the people of streets of Tokyo (Branscomb, 2004). This paper primarily deals with the counter terrorism strategies and action plans for Japan in current context and also for future. Defining Counterterrorism Counterterrorism is a difficult concept to define, especially in the context of western democracies. Paul Wilkinson writes that, “There is no universally applicable counter-terrorism policy for democracies. Every conflict involving terrorism has its own unique characteristics”. Both Paul Wilkinson and Louise Richardson and many others argue that, Western democracies must have respect for the rule of law and civil liberties should be followed in maintaining their counterterrorism strategies. Counterterrorism operations are subject to continuous change according to the nature of the threat (Rineheart, 2010). Counterterrorism as defined by the U.S. Army Field Manual stands as “Operations that include the offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, preempt, and respond to terrorism” (Rineheart, 2010). This definition of counterterrorism is more concrete but has its own weaknesses and strengths. Though it correctly explains that counterterrorism is an all-inclusive doctrine including prevention, preemption, deterrence, and responses which would require bringing all aspects of the nation’s power to be exposed both domestically and internationally, yet essentially it differentiates nothing. If an effective counterterrorism doctrine is meant to follow the principle that ‘whatever is needed, whenever we need it,’ then this could create problems with developing effective counter strategies, allocating resources, and determining accountability – it might make the concept of counterterrorism rather worthless. There are advantages to an all-encompassing approach to counterterrorism. It allows the governments to recognize the complexities of responding to terrorism; it also provides a rhetorical tool that reinforces the notion that there is no simple fix to a nation’s terrorism problem (Rineheart, 2010). International Counter-Terrorism Policy of Japan There are a number of dimensions to the counter-terrorism strategy of Japan. The government’s paramount responsibility is to guard the security of Japan’s territory and citizens against terrorist acts (Hideaki, 2003, p. 55). The basic policy of Japan to counter terrorist activities is by strengthening the national counter terrorism measures. International cooperation and capacity building assistance to countries in need is also enumerated in the list of counter terrorism activities for Japan. The Japanese government in December 2004 adopted the "Action Plan for Prevention of Terrorism" which included taking16 ‘Urgently Needed Terrorism Prevention Measures’. In lieu of this certain urgent measures were taken. Japan has actively committed to the negotiations on relevant treaties in the UN and other international bodies. It has ratified and implemented all of the 13 international counter-terrorism conventions and protocols, most recently, the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism in August 3, 2007. Japan has also been participating in the ongoing negotiations of the Comprehensive
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National Strategy for Counter-terrorism
If it is part of a broader insurgent the terrorism, the counter insurgent doctrine may be partly based on the counter-terrorism, but economical, political and other measures that may tend to focus more on the security breach or insurgency than the actual terror act.
If the citizen was a member of a foreign terrorist group, in a foreign country, or working for a foreign government, they could be considered an unlawful enemy combatant. An example is Jose Padilla, a US citizen charged in Chicago with aiding terrorists in the construction of a 'dirty bomb'.
Are you going to send agents to attend Mosques? Are you going to develop informants among those already living in that population? Are you bounded by any ethical considerations other than the need to prevent needless deaths through terrorism?
Based on the
The author states that California is also the economic hub of America and also houses the biggest number of important buildings, international corporations and film industry. After 9/11, US Patriotic Act was amended and renamed ‘USA Patriot and Terrorism Prevention Reauthorization Act’. There were introduced surveillance and detention of people.
A special, top secret court, termed as the FISA was crafted to hear appeals for such justifications. Safeguards were placed in a position to make certain that investigators following criminal issues did not
In reference with today’s terrorism, there is a great difference as many of these nations battle to attain political power. However, there is a great difference in the tactics used by militants during those early days. This is following the growth and advancement in
Tokyo’s population has been wondering whether a prolonged war on terrorism might obligate the prime minister to utilize his political capital to take part in the coalition to fight terrorism, thus leaving limited resources to address the nation’s economic issues. Recently, scholars at a seminar considered newer roles for four nations: the US, Japan, Russia and China, with all of them contributing through military and politically towards the war on terror (Borgu, 2004, p. 52).
Citizens from such countries under constant threat of terrorism undergo mental torture due to the repercussions of the act. Promotion of democracy and economic development remain the key strategy for countering terrorism. Economics
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