Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The final period of WW I brought to understanding of the majority of its participants the simple fact that the War was effectively lost by the Central Powers.Germany and its allies were exhausted and the Central Powers were no more able to turn the balance of forces in their direction. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.2% of users find it useful
The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson"

2 April The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson The final period of WW I brought to understanding of the majority of its participants the simple fact that the War was effectively lost by the Central Powers. Germany and its allies were exhausted and, despite some brief attempts at securing the indisputable advantage over their Entente bloc adversaries, the Central Powers were no more able to turn the balance of forces in their direction. After the entry of the U.S. into the Great War on the side of Entente on 6 April 1917 it became clear to both sides that it is only the question of time when the military potential of the U.S. forces would bring an end to the Central Powers’ military bloc. The impending termination of the hostilities caused the U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to ponder the problems of post-War settlement that might arise as the result of the Allied victory in the situation when the Central Powers’ empires were crumbling to dust and the Russian state was in the situation of unprecedented political upheaval. With this in mind, the American government began drafting preliminary conditions for the peace accords with Germany and its to-be-vanquished allies. The results of these ruminations were eventually incarnated in the form of the famed Fourteen Points, presented by Wilson on 8 January 1918, during the session of the U.S. Congress. The speech pronounced by Wilson contained the main outline of the international order that was intended to be enforced by the victorious Allies after November 1918, and which was nevertheless never fully implemented. Therefore it is necessary to examine the basic feature of the supposed Wilsonian world order, with special focus on the European situation, as Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points were clearly aimed at the settlement of European affairs. The first items in Fourteen Points deal first and foremost with the issues of general interest. The principle of open diplomacy, which was frequently denied or breached by the European powers in the past, was solemnly affirmed as the core foundation of the international relations (point 1). The economic interests of the USA, which were best served by the affirmation of free trade and freedom of navigation as the main principles of international economic relations, were expressed in the respective provisions of the 2nd and 3rd provisions of Fourteen Points that dealt with specifically economic issues. The importance of the problems connected with disarmaments and regulation of armaments in general was expressed in the stipulation of the necessity of limitation of armed forces and armaments to the level adequate for maintaining domestic security. However, the ambiguity of this point made it almost inapplicable within the situation that was characteristic of European powers in that period. Therefore it was never really implemented by any state that later subscribed to the Treaty of Versailles. The following point had more far-reaching consequences, as the demand that the colonial issues be settled while taking into account the interests and aspirations of subordinate populations was a revolutionary breakthrough in the direction of the later affirmation of the sovereign right of any people to self-determination. Eventually the codification of this principle gave rise to the anti-colonial movements and decolonization as such. Concerning the Russian question, which was one of the most troubling ones in view of revolutionary developments then taking place under the Bolshevik government, the Fourteen Points proposed a rather vague program, which consisted mainly in demand for evacuation of German troops stationed in the territory of former Russian Empire, the provision for guarantees of the free and independent political development of future Russian political entity, and the implementation of assistance program for the purposes of maintaining physical well-being of the beleaguered Russian people. The Fourteen Points solemnly proclaimed that the treatment of Russia by the other Great Powers would be indicative of the future conduct of these same Powers in the course of the post-War settlement in general; as it turned out, the Allied intervention in Russia and the events following in its steps proved that the intensions of the Great Powers, including the U.S., with respect to Russia were far less beneficial than it may be suggested from the text of Fourteen Points. The issues of other European nations were dealt with in a similar manner. For instance, Wilson’s program of European settlement called for the evacuation and restoration of the state of Belgium, as this was viewed by the U.S. President as an important step toward ameliorating the injustices caused by the former European conflicts and wars. To the same category belonged the problem of Alsace-Lorraine, annexed by Germany in 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War. While the Fourteen Points clearly viewed the restoration of Alsace-Lorraine to France as a pre-requisite of European peace, in practice it became one of the lingering problems in Franco-German relations. The Italian problem was addressed in the same, rather vague way. While the Fourteen Points prescribed that the readjustment of Italian borders should be implemented according to the principle of nationality, the exact character of such readjustment was left unspecified and, as the lands adjacent to the state of Italy were highly heterogeneous in national respect, the real implementation of this provision proved highly problematic. In future, the controversy over the satisfaction of Italian claims after WW I became one of the sources of international frictions involving Italy and contributed to the rise of Fascism as a political regime and movement. Finally, and most importantly, the multinational empires of Austro-Hungary and Ottomans were to be dismantled and the independent Serbian, Montenegrin and Polish states restored. The national sovereignty of Poland, which was viewed as a nation most wronged by the past political processes, was considered by Wilson to be instrumental in affirming and safeguarding the principle of self-determination. However, as it would later turn out, the Polish state would be just as repressive towards national minorities, as its predecessors, and the internal conflicts that rove it enabled for its swift defeat in WW II. In general, the vision of Woodrow Wilson for Europe was that of the community of equal nations, respectful of international law and basing themselves on national self-determination principle. However, the subsequent processes and events would doom such project to failure, at least in the short term. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
“The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson

The death penalty is not a deterrent

10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

The 14 Points Plan by Woodrow Wilson

...? “THE 14 POINTS PLAN BY WOODROW WILLSON” (Your teacher’s due 1 Introduction Fourteen points were first outlined in the speech of Woodrow Wilson, who was the president of United States. This speech was given to American Congress in January 8, 1918. This session was conducted to create assurance in the country that Great War was fought to create peace and moral in Europe. Citizens of Europe liked Wilson’s intervention on political grounds but his allied colleagues were little skeptical about Wilson’s idealism. It was a 10 minutes speech before Armistice with Germany. These fourteen...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points

...?Success of Woodrow Wilson’sFourteen points” principles during the world war Introduction Woodrow Wilson is a former American president who served between the year 1913 and the year 1921. The First World War is one of the significant events that happened during his reign as the president of one of the world’s superpowers. He is particularly renowned for his fourteen points that developed a basis to the end of the war and the post World War I era. This paper explores the success Woodrow’s fourteen points and the points’ achievements. Overview of Woodrow’s fourteen points Woodrow’s fourteen points was a proclamation towards the end of the First World War. Having come just a few months away from the ultimate end of the war... was successful...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Woodrow Wilson vs Henry Cabot Lodge

...?Essay, History and Political Science Essay, History and Political Science: Woodrow Wilson vs. Henry Cabot Lodge "After the First World War two dominant opinions regarding America’s future emerged. One envisioned by Woodrow Wilson and his League of Nations and the other by Henry Cabot Lodge and his independent America. Summarize both positions" October 08, 2013 Essay, History and Political Science: Woodrow Wilson vs Henry Cabot LodgE This paper discuses the conflict and dispute between Mr. Woodrow Wilson, the Democrat President of USA and Henry Cabot Lodge, the Republican chairperson of the Senate Foreign...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Woodrow Wilson

...WOODROW WILSON Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924), the 28th President of the United s, has been continuously ranked in top ten of the greatest US Presidents as one of the most influential and leading intellectuals of his era (Hines, 2008). From the critical perspective, historians have analyzed Woodrow Wilson's policy, and the basis for his political decisions for more then eight decades. Although he had an almost exclusively domestic focus at the beginning of his presidency, Wilson guided the United States through one of only two wars termed "World" in its scope. His diplomatic actions in Mexico, Haiti, and other areas,...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Woodrow Wilson

...Woodrow Wilson There were a number of factors that contributed to America declaring war on Germany. While Woodrow Wilson had been reelected using the campaign slogan ‘I kept us out of the war,’ it’s clear that even during this period there were a number of instances occurring that would later lead to United States involvement. Despite declaring neutrality, Germany had increasingly engaged United States passenger ships and ships delivering supplies to Europe. In 1915, German submarines sank the RMS Lusitania, a United States passenger ship, without warning. This created substantial public unrest and shifted public opinion towards entering the war. While this ship is...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

No More Wars by Woodrow Wilson

...“No More Wars” Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points From 1913 to 1921, the United s of America was presided by Woodrow Wilson. He was the 28th president of United States and is famous for his fourteen points which he presented in his address to a joing Congress session which took place in Washington in early 1918. The purpose of his fourteen points was to convince Europeans to agree and believe that the great war was in fact a process which could lead to ultimate peace in Europe. This intervention of the American president was generally welcomed by Europeans, although some...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Woodrow Wilson it intending to finance and provide Mexico with supplies, in the event that Mexico decided to fight against America. Once this telegram was intercepted and relayed to the American government by the British intelligence, it became obvious to me and my fellow Congressmen that Germany had no regard for America’s territorial sovereignty and interests. Conclusion The foregoing clearly shows that America, President Woodrow Wilson and the US Congressmen like me had strong compunctions towards engaging in Europe’s war. It is through Germany’s acts of belligerence that America realized that its interests and territorial sovereignty were under attack. This fact compelled me and my fellow Congressmen to...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

The Political and Social Problems of the Middle-East

...of Versailles that served as a factor for finishing the war. Although various arguments were raised against the treaty saying that the treaty was unfair, the arguments raised were that the economic clause regarding the treaty was foolish and it made Germany to pay reparation to a great scale [ CITATION Win48 \p 32 \l 1033 ]. The article 231 of the treaty stated that Germany was responsible for the World War One. This section of the treaty was considered to be unjust by many [ CITATION Winey \p 7 \l 1033 ]. Another drawback of the treaty was that it was devised by different people which had different objective and interpreted the scenarios differently. These people also interpreted the “fourteen points”...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

Woodrow Wilson & World War I

...Woodrow Wilson & World War I What were the main causes that led to the eruption of World War I? There were three main causes which were the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria by a Serbian, an increase and rise in nationalism as well as continual building up of the alliances and militarism within the European countries. What role did the balance of power play in the triggering of that conflict and how did the American government initially respond to the wars outbreak in August 1914? The alliance of Britain, France and Russia had more military strength from the many soldiers in the army. They also had high military spending budgets to utilize as well as using more powerful guns and naval...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic The Fourteen Points of Woodrow Wilson for FREE!

Contact Us