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Military Regimes in African Countries - Essay Example

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Name: Tutor: Course: Date: University: "How would you rate the performance of military regimes in African countries? Can military coups be explained by general factors applicable across the continent, or are there specific forces within individual countries?…
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Military Regimes in African Countries
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Download file to see previous pages The discussions will entail logical arguments behind the various military regimes that have occurred in Africa. The paper will give an analysis of the various military regimes that have taken place in Africa since independence to modern days. Introduction The focus on military regimes can be traced to the period after 1950 when most African countries gained independence. There was a considerable increase in the number of military coups during the 1960s, 70s, and 80s. During this period, a large number of military regimes emerged all over the world. In 1979, fourteen military regimes rose to power in sub-Saharan Africa. Besides the military regimes in Sub-saharan Africa, other regimes held power in Latin America, North Africa, Arab states, South East Asia and East Asia (Falola 2002, p. 235) Because of the tremendous rise of African military regimes, political scientists, historians, sociologists, and economists had a keen interest in studying this form of government. Africa witnessed seventy-one military coups between 1950 and 1990. Since African nations gained independence, a number of military regimes have overthrown the ruling civilian regimes. The military coups replace the government and introduce military rule. In most instances, the military leaders, who take over governance, introduce dictatorial rules (Kieh & Agbese 2004, p. 20). Some of the famous military coups that have taken place in Africa include the Ghanaian coup in 1966, Libyan military coup in 1969 led by Muammar Gaddafi and the Ugandan coup in 1971 led by Idi Amin. Gaddafi led a group of young Libyan military officers in a bloodless coup that saw the overthrowing of King Idris I. In Uganda, Idi Amin succeeded in ending the rule of Milton Obote. Other military coups have happened in countries such as Nigeria, Congo, Togo, among others (Baynham 1986, p. 38). Rating performance of military regimes in Africa Military coups in Africa can be explained by general factors applicable to the entire continent. A keen look at the past military coups indicates a common trend in military coups. Almost all countries in Africa that have had military coups seem to have the same reasons for the eruption of the military coups. From 1960 to 1970, a number of African nations witnessed military coups. Historians have regarded this period as a decade of coups in Africa (Kieh & Agbese 2004, p. 22). Once a coup erupted in one country, it became a phenomenon in other nations. Coups swept across the entire African continent at an alarming rate. Based on this, the rise of military regimes in Africa emerges from general factors applicable to the entire continent. The paper will now focus on the factors that have led to the rise of military regimes in Africa. In an attempt to preserve authority, states have embraced the use of coercion. As a result, some government institutions play the role of enhancing coercion. This reality has significantly directed debates surrounding politics in postcolonial Africa. The government needs coercive agencies, such as the police and military, which should be obedient to political leaders. However, this has not succeeded in Africa. In many instances, the military has used violent means to initiate coup d’etats. This is a contradiction since the military should manage violence on behalf of the state (Thomson 2010, p. 135). A notable factor responsible for military coups in A ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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